Primary Prevention in the United States and Alaska

History of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, and Teen Dating Violence in the US

Source: “History of Violence as a Public Health Issue”, CDC, 2009.

Violence Prevention Prioritized by Surgeon General


"Healthy People The Surgeon General’s report on health promotion and disease prevention" identifies violence as one of the 15 priority areas for the nation. The report states that violence can be prevented and should not be ignored in the effort to improve the nation’s health.

Source: "History of Violence as a Public Health Issue", CDC, 2009.

First Measurable Objectives Developed


The Department of Health and Human Services develops the first measurable objectives for preventing violence in the United States.

Source: “History of Violence as a Public Health Issue”, CDC, 2009.

CDC Researches Violent Crime

1980 - 1990

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began researching and analyzing violent crime in the 1980s. During this time, much research was focused on murder and suicide.

Source: “History of Violence as a Public Health Issue”, CDC, 2009.

Violence Epidemiology Branch Established


The CDC creates the Violence Epidemiology Branch and focuses its efforts on preventing violence.

Source: “History of Violence as a Public Health Issue”, CDC, 2009.

Violence Reinforced as Public Health Issue by Surgeon General


“'Violent and Abusive Behaviors' included as 1 of 22 public health priority areas in 'Healthy People 2000, the national disease-prevention and health-promotion strategy. It calls for 'cooperation and integration across public health, health care, mental health, criminal justice, social service, education, and other relevant sectors.'”

CDC Focuses on Youth Violence

1990 - 1993

The CDC begins to focus on youth violence. In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System begins monitoring violent behaviors among youth as a means of curbing the epidemic of gang violence. The following year, Congress allotted a portion of the budget to be devoted to youth violence prevention, leading to the publishing of "The Prevention
of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action", a call to action for communities to mobilize against youth violence, in 1993.

NCIPC Established


The CDC establishes the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control within the Division of Violence Prevention. The NCIPC's top priority was primary prevention of violence.

VAWA Passes


The Violence Against Women Act is passed by Congress in 1994. This piece of legislation established the Office of Violence against Women, appropriated over a billion dollars to the investigation and prosecution of crimes against women, and established rape prevention and education programs nationwide.

Knowledge of Youth Violence Synthesized


In 2001, he U.S. Surgeon General releases a comprehensive report synthesizing the state of knowledge on youth violence and its prevention.

DELTA Created


In 2002, the CDC developed the Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA) program using funds from the Family Violence Prevention Act. The DELTA program currently funds domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions in states across the nation so that they can provide primary prevention training, technical assistance, and funding for local prevention programming that prevents first time perpetration or victimization, reduces risk factors associated with intimate partner violence, promotes protective factors that reduce the likelihood of intimate partner violence, implements evidence-supported strategies and incorporating behavior and social change theories, and evaluates prevention strategies and using results to form future plans.

National Choose Respect Campaign Launched


In 2006, the CDC launched "Choose Respect", the first national communication initiative designed to prevent unhealthy relationship behaviors and dating abuse .

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey


The first National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey is conducted in 2010 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This survey collects information on sexual violence, stalking, and IPV victimization among adult men and women in the United States.

History of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, and Teen Dating Violence in Alaska

Source: "The History of Primary PRevention of IPV in Alaska via ANDVSA", Peggy Brown, Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, 2012.

Ten State Health Initiative

1998 - 2000

The Ten State Health Initiative provided training and collaboration work with hospitals and clinics throughout Alaska and helped craft policies and procedures for health care providers and institutions when screening or working with domestic violence victims in Alaska. This initiative also generated conversation around violence as a public health issue.

Understanding Primary Prevention in Alaska

2002 - 2007

The Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault worked with its partners to review prevention strategies in other states, using existing programs in other issue areas and maintaining focus on program evaluation and capacity building.

Pathways Statewide Steering Committee Forms


The Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault's DELTA Project Coordinator worked to form the Pathways Statewide Steering Committee in 2002 which brought together a diverse group of partners that all had a stake in eliminating domestic violence in Alaska.

The statewide steering committee devised seven pathways to preventing violence in Alaska:
1) Develop statewide infrastructure for prevention
2) Involve youth as leaders in primary prevention work
3) Integrate prevention curricula in K-12 schools
4) Standardize data on domestic violence and make it easily accessible
5) Use media to promote respect, healthy relationships, and equality
6) Provide statewide support for program approaches that address the root causes of violence
7) Engage Alaskan communities in preventing domestic violence

DELTA in Alaska


Since 2002, Alaska has been a recipient of DELTA funding. These funds have been used to begin primary prevention programming statewide. To date, five Alaskan communities have received funding to support local primary prevention work: Dillingham, Juneau, Ketchikan, Sitka, and Valdez.

Improved Health Education in Schools

2008 - 2009

The Alaksa Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault worked with partners to improve health education in schools related to teen dating and sexual violence prevention. ANDVSA co-drafted a health education plan with the Department of Education and Early development which focused on the prevention of IPV, teen dating violence, and sexual violence in schools, resulting in changed policy and the implementation for the Fourth R healthy relationships curriculum.

Statewide Plan Developed

2008 - 2009

Between 2008 and 2009, the Pathways Statewide Steering Committee drafts a primary prevention plan to eliminate domestic violence, sexual assault, and teen dating violence in Alaska. This plan served as the impetus for a number of statewide projects from ANDVSA such as Lead On! For Peace and Equality in Alaska, Stand Up Speak Up Alaska, Fourth R healthy relationships curriculum, Green Dot, Alaska Men Choose Respect, and more.

First Lead On! Summit


Lead On! For Peace and Equality in Alaska is ANDVSA's annual healthy relationships summit for youth which strengthens leadership skills among youth from across Alaska. Lead On! encourages participants to engage with their community to eliminate violence and promote respect and equality statewide.

Priority Areas Identified


ANDVSA worked with the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, University of Alaska-Anchorage, and other partners to determine priority ares for research related to violence prevention in Alaska.

Governor's Initiative Launches


Governor Sean Parnell launches his initiative to end the epidemic of domestic and sexual violence in Alaska. Through this initiative, the Choose Respect campaign was launched in Alaska. Also, funds were appropriated to support IPV-related services including primary prevention activities.

Source: "Parnell leads effort to end domestic violence", State of Alaska, 2009.
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Alaska Victimization Survey


The first Alaska Victimization Survey is conducted in 2010. The survey provided information on adult victimization in Alaska, finding that an estimated 47.6% of women in Alaska have experienced intimate partner violence in their lifetime.

Green Dot comes to Alaska


The Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault approves a three-year contract to bring the Green Dot bystander intervention program to Alaska.