Advances in Malaria over Time

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Disease over time project - In the following timeline, you will see the struggles and advances that people have had in dealing with malaria. Malaria is a parasite that is spread through the saliva of mostly mosquitos to humans. The symptoms cause fever, chills, headache, and naseau. Malaria has killed hundreds of thousands of people but it is surviveable and similar to our flu. There have been many successes and failures in the treatment of malaria but we have come a long way and the cases of malaria are not significant in most of the developed world.

Evidence of Malaria

340 A.D

Malaria cases seem to be present as far back as is traceable. In 2700 B.C., details of a malaria patient are documented in the Nei Ching, "The Cannon of Medicine", by Emperor Huang Ti. Figures such as Hippocrates and Pericles write extensive material on the symptoms of malaria (CDC).

Qinhao plant

340 A.D.

A ancient, Chinese medical treatise, found in the Mawangdui Tomb, called "52 Remedies", mentions the use of the Qinhao plant (called sweet worm wood in the US) for treatment of malaria (CDC).

Dante contracts malaria

1321

Famous Italian poet, Dante, author of "Dante's Inferno" contracts Malaria (famous victims).

Melanins found in malaria patients

1850

Black particles, called melanins, are discovered in the blood of patients with malaria (Nobel Prize).

Alphonse Laveran

1879

Laveran begins research at the militay hospital in Bone, Algeria where he attempts to find the role of melanins in malaria patients (Nobel Prize).

Parasites found in blood

1880

Alfonse Laveran discovers parasites in the blood of malaria patients (CDC).

Traite des Fievres Palustres

1884

Alfonse Laveran write a book called "Traite des Fievres Palustres" which details a parasite he has detected in malaria patients (Nobel Prize).

Ronald Ross

1897

Ronald Ross, an army surgeon, finds malarial parasites on the lining of a mosquito stomach. Ross also discovers that malaria can be transferred from infected person to mosquitos as well as from bird to bird (CDC).

Discovery of how malaria is contracted

1898

Giovanni Batista Grassi takes an infected mosquito and lets it feed on two volunteers, who both developed malaria. Establishing how malaria is transferred (CDC).

Panama Canal

1905 - 1910

Work on the Panama Canal was slow and dangerous because of yellow fever and malaria with the workers. Of the 26,000 workers, 21,000 were hospitalizzed with malaria at some point. For the first time, a progam of insect and malaria control was enforced and malaria dropped to as little as 10% of the population (CDC).

John William Stephens

1922

John Wiliiam Stephens finds a fourth malaria parasite known as P. Ovale. P. Knowlesi (CDC).

Malaria used to treat syphilis

1927

J. Wagner von Jauregg infected patients with malaria. The fever brought about by malaria would kill the syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease passed from person to person during sexual contact) strain and then quinine was used to treat the malaria in the patient (Archive).

Chloroquine

1934

Hans Andersag creates a chemical compound called chloroquine to treat patients (CDC).

DDT

1942

Insectiside DDT discovered by Paul Muller (Nobel Prize).

The Global Eradication Policy

1944

Preventative measure such as spraying DDT, draining of stagnant water, coating marshes with wax-like material to kill mosquito larvae, bednets, and inexpensive medications such as quinine, give hope that malaria can be eradicated. However, due to political and social factors, many parts of the world do not follow up with these procedures and cure falls short. Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Ugoslavia, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and the Netherlands all gain control of the disease (Nobel Prize).

WHO strategy submitted to World Health Assembly

1955

The World Health Organization submits a strategy to the World Health Assembly to eradicate malaria worldwise. Strategies include house-spraying, anti-malarial drug treatment, and surveillance. Again, worldwide social and political issues hamper improvements in many countries (CDC).

Chloroquine resistance reported

1957

The first documented case of resistance to the anti-malarial medication chloroquine is reported (UCSF).

10 strains of malaria discovered

1966

10 strains of malaria have been discovered (Archive).

Increase in cases

1972

A two to three time increase of cases are reported due to financial problems in nations, as well as a stronger strain of malaria known as P. Falciparum (Nobel Prize).

WHO recommends vigilance

1980

World Health Organization recommends that countries who had become non-malarious still maintain a malaria vigilance unit (Nobel Prize).

Bednets improve mortality

1996

Insectisides treated bednets improve overall childhood mortality by 20% in an African study (UCSF).

Millenium Development Goal

2000

The United Nations general assembly promotes the Millenium Development Goal to halt malaria by 2015 (UCSF).

ACT - Artemisinin Combination Therapy

2001

Drug company Novartis develops a synthetic anti-malarial medication which is approved by the World Health Organization (UCSF).

WHO Goal

2005

World Health Organization Assembly sets the goal of worldwide coverage of insectiside nets and Artemisinin Combination Therapy by 2010 (UCSF).

World Malaria Day

2008

The United Nations adapts April 25 as World Malaria Day (UCSF).

Advances in Malaria in the U.S. Over Time

Discovery of Cinchora

1630

Spanish missionaries, arriving in the New World, hear of a remedy that Native Americans are using known as Cinchora, now know as the anti-malaria drug Quinine (CDC).

George Wahington contracts malaria

1749

George Washington, at the age of 17, has his first five bouts with malaria (famous victims).

Ulysses S. Grant contracts malaria

1850

In 1850, Grant contracts malaria (famous victims).

Abraham Lindoln Contracts malaria

1861 - 1865

Throughout his adolescense Lincoln has many episodes of malaria (famous victims).

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

50% of caucasion troops and 80% of African American troops get malaria annually (archive).

William H. Welsh

1897

An American named William H. Welsh discovers an additional malaria parasite and calls it P. Falciparum (CDC).

Cases in the Unites States

1914

In 1914, there are an estimated 600,000 cases of malaria in the United States (archive).

Funds requested from Congress

1914

The United States Public Health Service requests funds from the US Congress to control Malaria in the US (CDC).

Malaria control in war areas

1942 - 1945

Many training facilities in the US and US teritorries still have issues with malaria due to the swampy areas they are located. The Malaria Control in War Areas (MCWA) is set up to control the spread of malaria by training local health department officials in malaria control techniques and strategies (CDC).

JFK contracts malaria

1943

In 1943 JFK contracts malaria (famous victims).

MCWA leads to creation of CDC

1946

The MCWA leads to the creation of the CDC (Communicable Disease Center) which concentrats on disease prevention, surveillance and technical support in the United States (CDC).

Louis Laval Williams

1947

Williams proposes a coorperation of the CDC and 13 southeastern states to put 4,650,000 home sprays in place. The number of cases of malaria go from 15,000 in 1947 to 2,000 in 1950 in the United States (CDC).

Success in the United States

1951

Malaria is considered eliminated in the United States (CDC).