Rise of Nationalism and Liberalism.


Ireland, Germans, Italy, Poland, Eastern and Southeastern Europe experience Nationalistic pressure due to other states controlling them.

The Charter


provided for a hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature
French monarchy restored, Bourbons are in charge after the Napoleonic Era.

Corn laws


Raised the prices of grains so the aristocrats receive more profit.

Coercion acts


Suspended habes corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings like the one at Spa Fields. This was not liked by the radicals.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle


Quadruple Alliance memmbers decide France should be freed of occupation, France joins Quadruple alliance & becomes Quintuple Alliance; -Castleragh rejects Alexander’s proposal that great powers support exisisting governments in Europe

Carlsbad Decrees


It dissolved the Burschenschaften (student clubs who discussed about a unified German state) .

Six acts


1) forbade large unauthorized public meetings
2) raised the fines for seditious libel
3) speed up the trials of political agitators
4) increased newspaper taxes
5) prohibited the training of armed groups
6) allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed countries

Congress of Troppau


It was a meeting where leaders agreed to provide military intervention to support governments against internal revolution.
Congress of Laibach

Spanish Revolution


Spanish revolution was a revolution against King Bourbon Ferdinand VII of Spain. When he had been put into power, he pledged to abide by the Cortes, but once he gained power, he abolished the constitution and ruled alone.
A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals.

Greek Revolution


It was a rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

Congress of Laibach


In it, the congress was to make a decision whether to allow Austria to intervene in Italy. Shortly after, Austrian troops marched into naples and restored the king of the two sicilies to a nonconstitutional government.

France helps defeat Spanish Revolution


A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals in which France intervened, trying to restore the Bourbon Ferdinand VII to the throne in Spain.

Charles X


becomes king of France cuz Louis XVII dies.
He lowered the interest rate on government bonds.
He supported the Roman Catholic Church.
He restored the rule of primogeniture.

Decembrist Revolt in Russia


It was the first time for Russians demanding a constitutional gov’t and the abolition of serfdom.

Repeal of restrictions against British Protestant nonconformists


Instead of accepting the new Chamber of Deputies, the king and his ministers decided to attempt a royalist seizure of power.

Serbia is granted indepedence


granted by Ottoman sultan

Catholic Emancipation act


allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office
started by O’Connell
passed in Great Britian

Four Ordainces


Charles X last act after his failed election.
He censored the press,
changed the electoral law to favor his own candidates, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of deputies, and
ordered new elections

July Revolution


It was the overthrow of Charles X.
It was the response to 4 ordinances which angered the Liberals and the poor people.

Belgian Revolution


Belgium gains independence.

Polish revolution


Louis Philippe becomes king


He was favored by the liberals. He included a new constitution which included the right of the people, no press censorship, religious tolerance.
But he provided no help for the poor.

Peterloo Massarce


It was a gathering in Manchester, England to discuss political reform and spread new ideas which was attacked by the government troops.

Great Reform Bill


It reformed British House of Commons and expanded electorate by fifty percent to include wider variety of propertied classes.
It laid groundwork for further reforms in British constitution.
It was instituted by William IV to create enough new peers to give a third reform bill a majority in the House of the Lords.