Period 4 (1450-1750)


Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade


Colonial Brazilian life was all about producing sugar at sugar mills. They tried to bring in the local people as workers, but the were met with a great deal of resistance. Disease also raged through, wiping out populations. This made them look elsewhere; the Africans. The slave labor began in 1530’s but took hold in the 1580’s.
Important: They were the first colony to enslave Africans, prompting other colonies to follow suit in the slave trade.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Divided world along north-south line. Signed by Spain and Portugal. Spain could claim any land west of the line, Portugal any land east.
Important: Kept the two from competing, as they couldn't go over the boundary line. A tactic for gaining and conquering land.

Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Started with an expedition looking for gold lead by Hernan Cortes. He saw the impressive city of Tenochtitlan, and attacked. The Spanish technology gave them a distinct advantage over the Aztecs.
Important: Shows Europe's greed for gold, and what an advantage the Europeans had over the natives. Also, ends Aztec civilization.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Started as a religious conflict, and ended more politically. Began after Holy roman Emperor tried to force the Bohemians to return to the church. Other people entered (Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian and Russian).
Important: Brought about Peace of Westphalia, recognizing independent states, not bound by one religion.

Peace of Westphalia


It marks the end of the Thirty Years' War. Laid the foundations for independent competing states. They saw each other as sovereign and equal. They could also organize their own affairs.
Important: Ended the war. Gave political and diplomatic affairs to states. The religious unity disappeared, and sovereign states emerged.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

It was a global conflict over commercial rivalries and different political views.
Europe: Britain and Prussia vs. France, Austria and Russia
India: British vs. French w/ local rulers for Indian Ocean.
Caribbean: Spain and France vs British expansion in West
North America: British vs. France to out do each other.
Important: Made Britain the imperial power for the next 150 years.

Establishment of first colony in Australia


British ships came to Australia carrying 1000 passangers, 800 of them convicts. They established the first settlement in Australia as a penal colony.
Important: This was the start to colonization in Australia. It came after seaman James Cook charted the eastern coast in 1770. There was initially no interest, but after that initial settlement, people began coming over, connecting Europe with Australia.

End of British Slave Trade


Great Britain followed the example of Denmark, after they abolished slavery in 1803.
Important: This demonstrated the change in economy. It was less expensive to keep low wage workers than to import slaves. Slaves had to be taken care of, while the workers took care of themselves. It was a change in the world economy. As other colonies changed, African economies suffered too due to the lack of a once popular export.


Dias' Voyage into the Indian Ocean


Dias sailed from Portugal, down the coast of Africa, around the Cape of Good Hope and into the Indian Ocean.
Important: Proved it was possible to sail from Europe to the Indian Ocean. Europe could then trade with Asia rather than through Muslim mediators. It was also the beginning of European Imperialism in Asia.

Columbus' First Voyage


Sent by Queen Isabela and King Ferdinand of Spain. He came searching for a quicker pass to Asia, but accidentally found the Americas. His geography was off as he didn't know the Americas existed. He is important because this initial introduction brought more explorers over, leading for eventual colonization. His writings of the indigenous people led people to believe they were silly beasts who needed to be saved.


Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Spread Christianity and increase Portugal's influence on the seas. Encouraged Portuguese to go into the Atlantic.
Important: The venturing into the Atlantic lead to the discovery of islands, which they colonized. They started sugarcane there, starting their industry.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Was a monk supporting the church, but saw the wrongdoings and decided to go against the church. He attacked the selling of indulgences and other abuses caused by the church. He worked for a reform, translation of the Bible, ane end to priest authority.
Important: Luther can be credited for getting the ball rolling in reformation. He gained a great deal of followers, causing the church to eventually reform. His movement also lead to the split of sects.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French lawyer who created a strict Protestant Community in Switzerland. Here, they practice strict morality and discipline. Wrote an influential work titled "Institutes of the Christian Religion", which gave people an organized and easy to understand version of the Protestant teachings.
Important: Calvinism ideas spread through France, England Scotland, Hungary and the Netherlands. His very influential work gave people an idea of the Protestant religion, making it easy to understand, which encouraged conversions.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Italian scientist who showed the sky wasn't perfect, but instead constantly changing, contrast to previous ideas. He used the telescope, looked up at the sky and recorded his observations. He saw sun spots and mountains on the moon, disproving the theory that all heavenly bodies were smooth and unchanging. He also gave a better understand of how things work under the influence of gravity.
Important: Brought science into the picture. He disproved the origin theory that heavenly beings are perfect, and showed the world is constantly changing.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

English philosopher, ho searched for the natural laws of politics. He worked towards constitutional government here people have a say, rather than absolute monarchies.
Important: This changed the thinking of many people, as society gravitated away from absolute monarchies. Constitutional governments gave people a voice and opinion in the way their government was run.

Religious Groups

Foundation of the Society of Jesus


Founded by St. Ingatius Loyola. They looked for extending the boundaries of the reformed Catholic church.
Important: Loyola made all members partake in an advanced education, learning theology, philosphy, languages, history, literature and science. They made successful missionaries, keeping the Roman church alive.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Made up of bishops, cardinals and church officials to address doctrine and reform. The drew their insipiration from the St. Thomas Aquainas, and defined the Roman Catholic beliefs in detail. They also recognized the Roman Church had abused many people, and tried to reform the church. They demanded other church officials observe standards of morality, and required education for future priests to stop further abuse.
Important: Helped define Catholic reformation and further the goals of the reform.


Tokugawa Shogunate

1100 - 1600

Military governors who ruled Japan. Received political rights and land for military service. The shogun ruled s a stand in for the Japanese emperor.
Important: Shows how important military is. Also, military service could enable one to move up in society.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1451 - 1481

He considered himself the "Warrior Sultan". Under his administration, the city of Constantinople was captured, renamed Istanbul and made the new capital. It turned into a big commercial center, as it was the center of where Asia and Europe connected.
Important: Captured Istanbul, making them successful commercially, and seen as a new power. He also set the foundations for a central absolute monarchy.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1493

Conquered surrounding areas and created a single empire. He brought trading cities Timbuktu and Jenne under the Songhay control and dominated Niger valley. He created an elaborate military and imperial navy.
Important :Brought about prosperous trade and power. Controlled a good part of Africa.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Under his administration, the Ottomans' Imperialism reached it's high point. They expanded into SW Asia and Europe. They also became a major naval power, commanding the Black and Aegean Seas, and the acquired Mamluk (Egypt) navy.
Important: A great deal of expansion, and seen as a naval power.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Built up the Mughal Empire, centralizing the administration, and strenghtening the military. He was tough and just, but also interested in religion and philosophy. He instituted a religious toleration policy.
Important: His reign brought a loose empire together into a tight centralized rule. It was what the Mughal Empire needed in order to get started. His act of religious toleration also kept those tensions at bay for the most part.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

One of last Ming Emperors. Would not meet with government officials and would instead satisfy his own needs.
Important: Shows the corruption of the government at this time.

Dynasties/ Empires

Ottoman Dynasty

1289 - 1923

Connected Asia and Europe and controlled the Black and Mediterranean Seas. They were powerful and had good trading centers along the Seas, Istanbul being one of the biggest.
Important: Had control of both regions of the world. Used the Silk Road, as the end ended in Istanbul. Powerful Dynasty.

Songhay Empire

1464 - 1591

Take over Mali empire and get trading cities (Timbuktu and Jenne) and use wealth to dominate Niger Valley. Extend to Sahara. Participate in trans-Saharan trade. Fall under gunfire.
Important: Big trading city that dominated along the coast of Africa for about 100 years.

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1706

They were essentially the middle men, squished in between the Ottoman and Mughal Dynasties. Their main economic source was the Silk Road that lead into Europe. Islam as a big part of their civilization.
Important: Help trade prosper along the Silk Road.

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1857

Majority of territory was the Indian peninsula,bringing great prosperity to India. Under Akbar, it grew into a centralized administrative empire. The military kept power in ehck. During this reign, a policy of religious toleration as adopted Aurangzeb broke this toleration, leading to religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims.
Important: Brought wealth to India. Controlled trade in the region, and some that went through to Asia.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

The power of East Asia. It was tightly centralized. Gave civil service exams so people had the power to potentially move up in society. Big in Confucianism.
Important: Big power in Gunpowder Empires. Use sea, Silk Road, but not as much trade, because they were 80% agricultural.


Spanish Armada


Created by King Phillip II of Spain. Used to try and force England to return to the Roman Catholic Church. 130 ships with 30,000 men were sent to try and dethrone Queen Elizabeth. It was put down after England sent ships on fire towards them.
Important: Show the lengths people went to try to get people to their religion. Major religious tension.