Group 5 - Enlightenment

Main

Netherlands

1590

Microscope (1590s, Dutch)

Italy

1600

Barometer (early 1600s, Italian) - measure air pressure

Paris, France

1603

Francois Vieta introduces signs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Germany

1605

Kepler discovers first law of planetary motion

Paris, France

1608

Galileo plots the speed of a rolling ball on a time axis. 

Netherlands

1608

Telescope (1608, Dutch) A Dutch glass maker construced a primitive telescope. Galileo heard about it and improved on the design.

Italy

1609

Galileo develops his first telescope

Padua, Italy

1610

Galileo Galilei publishes his The Starry Messenger, (Siderial Messenger, from Siderius Nuncius, 1610). It speaks of Galileo's first observations of the moon, the stars, and jupiter as seen through a telescope. The first publication to utilize telescopic observations.

Padua, Italy

1611

Thermometer (1611) for chemical and medical studies

Padua, Italy

1613

Galileo published his The Letters on Sunspots. Suggests that the sun and heavens alike are corruptible

Italy

1616

Committee of 11 Church consultants (natural philosophy.s) rule that Copernican system is philosophically, scientifically and theol. unsound (therefore heretical) even after 2 months of ‘lobbying’ by Galileo (system was NOT formally condemned)

Bohemia

1618

Thirty Years’ War begins

Dutch Republic (Sweden)

1625

Grotius publishes On the Law of War and Peace

Italy

1632

Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published

Rome

1633

Pope prosecutes Galileo for promoting sun-centered theory of the solar system

France

1635

French Academy language 1635

Netherlands

1637

Renee Descartes introduces analytical geometry for engineering.

Dutch Republic(Sweden)

1637

The Discourse on the Method published by René Descartes in 1637. (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences). Descartes tackles philosophical problems and takes on a persona of skepticism to start anew when viewing the world as a whole from a philosophical perspective

Italy

1638

Galileo published Two New Sciences, (smuggled out to Amsterdam)

Westphalia

1648

Thirty Years’ War ends

Sweden

1650

Air pump (1650s, Dutch) - to study atmosphere

Sweden

1657

Pendulum clock (1657, Dutch) let scientists more accurately measure time in their experiments

Paris, France

1665

François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections.

Paris, France

1665

Journal des savants 1665 by Denis De Sallo

London, England

1665

Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) “miraculous year” – worked on universal gravitation, calculus (or “fluxions”), and theory of colors

London, England

1666

Isaac Newton uncovers laws of gravity • London, already stricken by plague, is destroyed in the Great Fire and subsequently rebuilt in more orderly fashion.

Paris, France

1666

French Academy of Sciences founded in 1666

Paris, France

1668

Jean de La Fontaine, Fables.

Greenwich, Greater London, England

1675

Completion of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; John Flamsteed (1646-1719) became the first Astronomer Royal; Newton published his “An Hypothesis Explaining the Properties of Light” in the Phil. Trans. of the Roy. Soc.

London, England

1687

Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" -Latin. It speaks of absolute time, Newtons Law of Motion, Planetary Motion, and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. One of the most important works in sciences history.

London, England

1687

Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

England

1688

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England

London, England

1702

Publication of the Daily Courant, London's first daily newspaper.

London, England

1703

Sir Isaac Newton becomes President of the Royal Society.

London, England

1704

Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks; a book discussing light itself, and analyzing its refraction through prisms and lenses.

Paris, France

1704

Pierre Boisguilbert, Dissertation sur la nature des richesses, de l' argent et des tributs (Dissertation on the nature of wealth, money, and taxes)

London, England

1708

Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne.

Kensington, England

1713

Roger Cotes issues a revision of Newton's Principia Mathematica.

Teddington, England

1727

Stephen Hales concludes that plants receive nourishment from the atmosphere, and studies the movement of water within plants.

Kensington, England

1727

Death of Sir Issac Newton.

Teddington, England

1727

Stephen Hales (1677-1761), showed air takes part in chemical reactions and invented apparatus for investigating gases; Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations

London,England

1729

Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica is translated into English by Andrew Motte.

Russia

1729

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 1729-1796

Prussia

1740

Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786)

Germany

1750

Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750)

Berlin, Prussia

1750

Building on da Vinci and Galileo's early use of vertical and horizontal axes, mathematician Leonard Euler establishes the modern convention that axes must be perpendicular. 

Glasgow, Scotland

1754

Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide, which he calls "fixed air."

Teddington, England

1761

Death of Stephen Hales.

England

1765

English chemist Joseph Priestley publishes the first of several timelines that contemporary audiences would recognize as such: A Chart of Biographycompares the life spans of 2,000 celebrated men from 1200 BC to AD 1750, using bars set against a linear time axis to denote their life spans. 

Germany

1765

Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790

England

1767

Joseph Priestley publishes The History and Present State of Electricity.

England

1772

Joseph Priestley announces his discoveries in On Different Kinds of Air.

Europe

1772

Weimar Classicism Movement 1772 until 1805.

Wiltshire, England

1774

Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.

Wiltshire, England

1774

Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) prepared dephlogisticated air (oxygen); Pierre Bayen (1725-1798) investigated the properties of calx of mercury (mercuric oxide)

Prussia

1784

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment 1784 essay Immanuel Kant

Dundee, Scotland

1786

Joseph Priestley's timeline was shortly followed by political economist William Playfair's invention of the bar chart, an innovation whose merits remained unrealized for several decades. As a young man, Playfair worked in the shop of James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, where he was likely acquainted with Watt's self-registering device for measuring steam pressure. 

France

1789

French Revolution 1789–1799 ( end of enlightenment)

New York, USA

1794

The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine,challenges the Bible,Published in three parts in 1794, 1795, and 1807.

Edinburgh, Scotland

1795

James Hutton, Theory of the Earth

Europe

1803

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) (end of enlightenment)

Pennsylvania

1804

Death of Joseph Priestley.