Microscope (1590s, Dutch)
Barometer (early 1600s, Italian) - measure air pressure
Francois Vieta introduces signs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Kepler discovers first law of planetary motion
Galileo plots the speed of a rolling ball on a time axis.
Telescope (1608, Dutch) A Dutch glass maker construced a primitive telescope. Galileo heard about it and improved on the design.
Galileo develops his first telescope
Galileo Galilei publishes his The Starry Messenger, (Siderial Messenger, from Siderius Nuncius, 1610). It speaks of Galileo's first observations of the moon, the stars, and jupiter as seen through a telescope. The first publication to utilize telescopic observations.
Thermometer (1611) for chemical and medical studies
Galileo published his The Letters on Sunspots. Suggests that the sun and heavens alike are corruptible
Committee of 11 Church consultants (natural philosophy.s) rule that Copernican system is philosophically, scientifically and theol. unsound (therefore heretical) even after 2 months of ‘lobbying’ by Galileo (system was NOT formally condemned)
Thirty Years’ War begins
Grotius publishes On the Law of War and Peace
Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published
Pope prosecutes Galileo for promoting sun-centered theory of the solar system
French Academy language 1635
Renee Descartes introduces analytical geometry for engineering.
The Discourse on the Method published by René Descartes in 1637. (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences). Descartes tackles philosophical problems and takes on a persona of skepticism to start anew when viewing the world as a whole from a philosophical perspective
Galileo published Two New Sciences, (smuggled out to Amsterdam)
Thirty Years’ War ends
Air pump (1650s, Dutch) - to study atmosphere
Pendulum clock (1657, Dutch) let scientists more accurately measure time in their experiments
François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections.
Journal des savants 1665 by Denis De Sallo
Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) “miraculous year” – worked on universal gravitation, calculus (or “fluxions”), and theory of colors
Isaac Newton uncovers laws of gravity • London, already stricken by plague, is destroyed in the Great Fire and subsequently rebuilt in more orderly fashion.
French Academy of Sciences founded in 1666
Jean de La Fontaine, Fables.
Completion of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; John Flamsteed (1646-1719) became the first Astronomer Royal; Newton published his “An Hypothesis Explaining the Properties of Light” in the Phil. Trans. of the Roy. Soc.
Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" -Latin. It speaks of absolute time, Newtons Law of Motion, Planetary Motion, and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. One of the most important works in sciences history.
Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England
Publication of the Daily Courant, London's first daily newspaper.
Sir Isaac Newton becomes President of the Royal Society.
Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks; a book discussing light itself, and analyzing its refraction through prisms and lenses.
Pierre Boisguilbert, Dissertation sur la nature des richesses, de l' argent et des tributs (Dissertation on the nature of wealth, money, and taxes)
Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne.
Roger Cotes issues a revision of Newton's Principia Mathematica.
Stephen Hales concludes that plants receive nourishment from the atmosphere, and studies the movement of water within plants.
Death of Sir Issac Newton.
Stephen Hales (1677-1761), showed air takes part in chemical reactions and invented apparatus for investigating gases; Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations
Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica is translated into English by Andrew Motte.
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 1729-1796
Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786)
Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750)
Building on da Vinci and Galileo's early use of vertical and horizontal axes, mathematician Leonard Euler establishes the modern convention that axes must be perpendicular.
Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide, which he calls "fixed air."
Death of Stephen Hales.
English chemist Joseph Priestley publishes the first of several timelines that contemporary audiences would recognize as such: A Chart of Biographycompares the life spans of 2,000 celebrated men from 1200 BC to AD 1750, using bars set against a linear time axis to denote their life spans.
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790
Joseph Priestley publishes The History and Present State of Electricity.
Joseph Priestley announces his discoveries in On Different Kinds of Air.
Weimar Classicism Movement 1772 until 1805.
Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) prepared dephlogisticated air (oxygen); Pierre Bayen (1725-1798) investigated the properties of calx of mercury (mercuric oxide)
Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment 1784 essay Immanuel Kant
Joseph Priestley's timeline was shortly followed by political economist William Playfair's invention of the bar chart, an innovation whose merits remained unrealized for several decades. As a young man, Playfair worked in the shop of James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, where he was likely acquainted with Watt's self-registering device for measuring steam pressure.
French Revolution 1789–1799 ( end of enlightenment)
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine,challenges the Bible,Published in three parts in 1794, 1795, and 1807.
James Hutton, Theory of the Earth
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) (end of enlightenment)
Death of Joseph Priestley.