Passed in order to impose limitations on the monarchy in fiscal and political matters.
Ends the Hundred Years War.
France and Italy fight for control over Italian States.
Representatives of France, HRE, the Papacy, and Ferdinand I of Spain establish a league to defeat Venice in the Italian Wars.
Treaty that proclaimed Cuius regio, eius religio, meaning that the leader of a state could choose the religion of the state.
Massacre of French Protestants (Huguenots). 20,000 Huguenots flee France.
Henry IV issues the Edict of Nantes to end the French wars of religion and promote civil unity.
Son of Henry IV, Florentine wife Marie de'Medci rules as through her son Louis XIII
Cardinal Mazarin becomes chief minister
Fought over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.
Treaty under which Philip V of Spain renounced any claim to the French throne and Louis XIV renounced any claim to the Spanish throne
Philip II, Duke of Orleans is regent.
Sewed the seeds for the French Revolution as the nobles and the church were not subject to tax.
French Bourbons try to check the power of the Habsburgs.
Ends the War of the Polish Succession. In the process, France gains the Duchy of Lorraine and Bar
Caused because of widespread questioning in Europe regarding the power of Maria Theresa, successor to the throne in the House of Habsburgs
Resulted from overlapping trades of the British and Bourbon (French) monarchy as well as antagonism between the Hohenzollerns and Habsburgs regarding territorial claims.
Ends the Wars of Austrian Succession, causing the French to withdraw from Austrian Netherlands
Ends the Seven Years War, taking away major colonies from France
Corsica given to France.
Storming of the Bastille in July, National Assembly gains power to write themselves their own constitution. Establishment of the first Republic
Maximilien Robespierre and other revolutionaries over-throw the Convention.
Fought to contain or remove Revolutionary France
Creates the Confederation of the Rhine, which consisted of 16 states rather than 300
Standardizing commercial practices throughout the French Empire
Louis XVIII (Bourbon) crowned King because Congress of Vienna attempting to restore Europe after the downfall of Napoleon
Napoleon defeated in Battle of Waterloo; monarchy re-established
Edward III makes peace with Scotland
England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe
A battle between the royal houses of Plantagenets and Lancastrians. Henry Tudor is eventually crowned King Henry VII.
Pope excommunicates Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic Church
Henry breaks from the Church of Rome, and makes himself the head of the Church of England.
Roman Catholic mass becomes banned
Known as "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of Protestants and political rivals.
First Stuart King
A non-aggression pact signed between major European nations.
A series of wars fought primarily in Central Europe.
Set out specific liberties of an individual.
Established to pass financial bills, and eventually expelled by Oliver Cromwell.
War between the King and the Parliament for power, ending with Parliament victory.
He was a Catholic, to the dismay of the English people
King James II is deposed by Parliament, with William of Orange and Mary jointly crowned monarchs of England
Proclaimed that from then on, monarchs would rule in partnership with Parliament.
England joins the League of Augsburg in an attempt to halt Louis XIV's expansions
Unites England and Scotland as Great Britain
Becomes the first German-speaking monarch
Places Ireland under Parliamentary control
Lord Nelson defeats Napoleon's French fleet
Riots against unemployment due to the Industrial Revolution
Duke of Wellington defeats Napoleon Bonaparte.
Bans child workers under the age of nine
Gave political rights to Catholics for loyalty to the Protestant monarchy.
Male property owners are given the right to vote.
Workhouses set up for those without homes or jobs.
Between the Hapsburgs and the Valois
Ends the Thirty Years' War. Hapsburgs declare Roman Catholicism as the official Austrian religion.
Between Austria and France; Austria wins Belgium and Spain's lands in Italy
A permanent group of seven electors is established.
First great marriage to form the Hapsburg Empire
Recognizes the unity of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Imperial Chamber (the supreme judicial court) is founded.
Results in Charles of Spain to be elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy, Austria and Germany.
Martin Luther's work gets banned
Later declared an outlaw by Charles V
Ends the Religious Wars: "cuius regio eius religio"
Fought largely in German lands, causing massive destruction and death.
An attempt to restore the religious and territorial settlement after the Peace of Augsburg.
In order to halt Louis XIV's expansions.
Known as one of the most famous German rulers of all time for his military successes and his domestic reforms.
Declared that Frederick's domains would go to his daughter, Maria Theresa.
Resulted from ignoring the Pragmatic Sanction
Brings the War of Austrian Succession to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
Dramatic turning point for German nationalism
Laid the foundation for the unification of Castile and Aragon
Agreed upon by the Spanish and Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly discovered lands.
State borders are recognized as well as Calvinism
Goal was to end the war between the Spanish and French
Marks the start of the Romanov dynasty
The Russian army launches an invasion against the Ottomans
Streltsy overthrew their commanders, but later were defeated.
Russia declares war on Sweden
Decisive Russian victory over the Swedes which marked the dawn of the Russian Empire.
Established to pass laws in his absense
A secular body to head the Russian Orthodox Church
Ends the Great Northern War
A system introduced by Peter I which granted privilege based on service
An area into which Russian Jews were transported is established
Ended the conflict between Russia and France
Soldiers gathered at the Senate Square in St. Petersburg and declared their loyalty to the idea of a Russian constitution.
Poland completely dissolved after being distributed between Austria, Russia, Prussia and France
Prussia fought against Austria, Russia, and France. Prussia was the winner.
Also loses portions of Poland, which left only Brandenburg, East Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia.
All 17 provinces of the Netherlands unite in the face of Spanish occupation
Brings together the seven Northern provinces of Netherlands