AP European History Timeline

France

Avignon Papacy

1305 - 1378

Charles IV

1322 - 1328

Philip VI

1328 - 1380

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Estates-General passes Great Ordinance

1357

Passed in order to impose limitations on the monarchy in fiscal and political matters.

Charles VI

1380 - 1461

Battle of Castillon

1453

Ends the Hundred Years War.

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

Charles VIII

1483 - 1547

Italian Wars begin

1494

France and Italy fight for control over Italian States.

War of the League of Cambrai

1508

Representatives of France, HRE, the Papacy, and Ferdinand I of Spain establish a league to defeat Venice in the Italian Wars.

Jacques Cartier discovers the Great Lakes

1534

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Treaty that proclaimed Cuius regio, eius religio, meaning that the leader of a state could choose the religion of the state.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Massacre of French Protestants (Huguenots). 20,000 Huguenots flee France.

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nantes

1598

Henry IV issues the Edict of Nantes to end the French wars of religion and promote civil unity.

Louis XIII

1610

Son of Henry IV, Florentine wife Marie de'Medci rules as through her son Louis XIII

Louis XIII takes control

1617

Cardinal Richelieu becomes chief minister

1624

Louis XIV

1643

Cardinal Mazarin becomes chief minister

The War of Spanish Succession

1701

Fought over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Treaty under which Philip V of Spain renounced any claim to the French throne and Louis XIV renounced any claim to the Spanish throne

Louis XV

1715

Philip II, Duke of Orleans is regent.

Meeting of the Estates General at Versailles to obtain support for new taxes

1715

Sewed the seeds for the French Revolution as the nobles and the church were not subject to tax.

War of the Polish Succession

1733

French Bourbons try to check the power of the Habsburgs.

Treaty of Vienna

1738

Ends the War of the Polish Succession. In the process, France gains the Duchy of Lorraine and Bar

Wars of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Caused because of widespread questioning in Europe regarding the power of Maria Theresa, successor to the throne in the House of Habsburgs

Seven Years War

1746 - 1763

Resulted from overlapping trades of the British and Bourbon (French) monarchy as well as antagonism between the Hohenzollerns and Habsburgs regarding territorial claims.

Treaty of Aachen (Aix-la-Chappelle)

1748

Ends the Wars of Austrian Succession, causing the French to withdraw from Austrian Netherlands

Treat of Paris

1763

Ends the Seven Years War, taking away major colonies from France

Treaty of Versailles

1768

Corsica given to France.

3rd estate declare themselves as National Assembly

1789

Storming of the Bastille in July, National Assembly gains power to write themselves their own constitution. Establishment of the first Republic

Louis XVI executed

1793

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Maximilien Robespierre and other revolutionaries over-throw the Convention.

Napoleon Bonaparte promoted to general during the war with Prussia and Russia

1793

The Directory seizes power from the Convention

1795

Napoleon Bonaparte leads a coup d'etat to overthrow government

1799

War of the Second Coalition

1802

Fought to contain or remove Revolutionary France

Louisiana Purchase

1803

Napoleon dissolves HRE

1806

Creates the Confederation of the Rhine, which consisted of 16 states rather than 300

Napoleon's Commercial Code goes into effect

1808

Standardizing commercial practices throughout the French Empire

Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba

1814

First Restoration

1814

Louis XVIII (Bourbon) crowned King because Congress of Vienna attempting to restore Europe after the downfall of Napoleon

100 Days

1815

Napoleon defeated in Battle of Waterloo; monarchy re-established

England

King Edward I dies and Edward II succeeds throne

1307

Edward III becomes king

1327

Treaty of Edinburgh

1328

Edward III makes peace with Scotland

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe

Black Death arrives in England

1348

Richard II is crowned king and introduces the poll tax

1377

Geoffrey Chaucer begins to write the Canterbury Tales

1380

Peasant's Revolt against the poll tax

1381

Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe

1382

King Richard II is forced to resign and Henry IV is crowned

1399

Henry IV dies and Henry V becomes king

1413

Henry takes control of Normandy, France

1419

Henry VI succeeds throne

1422

War of Roses

1455 - 1485

A battle between the royal houses of Plantagenets and Lancastrians. Henry Tudor is eventually crowned King Henry VII.

King VIII is crowned, and marries Catherine of Aragon

1509

Lutheran writings begin to circulate England

1521

King Henry VIII divorces Catherine of Aragon and marries Anne Boleyn

1533

Pope excommunicates Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic Church

Henry VIII passes the Act of Supremacy

1534

Henry breaks from the Church of Rome, and makes himself the head of the Church of England.

Henry VIII issues the Treasons Act of 1534

1534

Anne Boleyn is executed and Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour

1536

Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves, and later marries Catherine Howard

1540

Henry VIII's daughter Mary is crowned Queen of Scots

1542

Chaterine Howard is executed for adultery

1542

Henry marries Katherine Parr

1543

Edward V becomes king

1547

Book of Common Prayer is introduced

1549

First Act of Uniformity is passed

1549

Roman Catholic mass becomes banned

Mary I is crowned Queen

1553 - 1558

Known as "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of Protestants and political rivals.

Elizabeth I is crowned Queen

1558 - 1601

Elizabeth executes Mary Queen of Scots

1587

Spanish Armada is destroyed by the English

1588

William Shakespeare publishes his first work

1593

East India Company is established

1600

James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

1601

First Stuart King

Treaty of London

1604

A non-aggression pact signed between major European nations.

Shakespeare publishes "King Lear"

1605

English colonists settle in Virginia

1607

James I dissolves parliament

1614

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

A series of wars fought primarily in Central Europe.

Plymouth becomes first permanent settlement in North America

1620

Charles I is crowned king

1625

Petition of Right is issued by Parliament

1628

Set out specific liberties of an individual.

Long Parliament summoned

1640 - 1653

Established to pass financial bills, and eventually expelled by Oliver Cromwell.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

War between the King and the Parliament for power, ending with Parliament victory.

Charles I is executed

1649

England passes the Navigation Act

1651

Thomas Hobbes publishes "Leviathan"

1651

Oliver Cromwell rules England as Lord Protector within the Commonwealth

1653 - 1658

Cromwell dies and monarchy is restored with Charles II

1660

Robert Boyle establishes a formulated rate law

1660

Great Fire of London

1666

John Milton publishes "Paradise Lost"

1667

James II is crowned king

1685

He was a Catholic, to the dismay of the English people

Sir Isaac Newton publishes "Principia Mathematica"

1687

Glorious Revolutioin takes place

1688

King James II is deposed by Parliament, with William of Orange and Mary jointly crowned monarchs of England

English Bill of Rights is passed

1689

Proclaimed that from then on, monarchs would rule in partnership with Parliament.

League of Augsburg

1689

England joins the League of Augsburg in an attempt to halt Louis XIV's expansions

John Locke publishes his "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"

1689

Bank of England is established

1694

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1750

Anne is crowned Queen

1702

Act of Union is passed

1707

Unites England and Scotland as Great Britain

George I becomes King

1714

Becomes the first German-speaking monarch

South Sea Bubble financial crisis

1720

Robert Walpole becomes first Prime Minister

1721

Flying shuttle is invented

1733

Industrial Revolution

1740 - 1860

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Enlightened Absolutists encourage economic growth

1763 - 1769

Adam Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations"

1776

Power loom is invented

1785

Edward Jenner invents the vaccination against small pox

1788

Act of Union is passed

1800

Places Ireland under Parliamentary control

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Lord Nelson defeats Napoleon's French fleet

Slave trade is abolished

1807

Luddite Movement begins

1811

Riots against unemployment due to the Industrial Revolution

Potato Famine in Ireland

1811

Battle of Waterloo

1815

Duke of Wellington defeats Napoleon Bonaparte.

Factory Act is passed

1819

Bans child workers under the age of nine

Roman Catholic Relief Act is passed

1829

Gave political rights to Catholics for loyalty to the Protestant monarchy.

Great Reform Act is passed

1832

Male property owners are given the right to vote.

Poor Law is set up

1834

Workhouses set up for those without homes or jobs.

Railway construction boom

1840 - 1860

Corn Laws are repealed

1846

Austria

Black Death enters Austria

1347

Seventeen Provinces become the property of the Hapsburgs

1477

Battle at Novara

1513

Between the Hapsburgs and the Valois

Ferdinand of Austria inaugurates the Austro-Hungarian state

1513

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Peace of Westphalia is passed

1648

Ends the Thirty Years' War. Hapsburgs declare Roman Catholicism as the official Austrian religion.

War of Spanish Succession

1701

Between Austria and France; Austria wins Belgium and Spain's lands in Italy

Serfdom is abolished

1848

Dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary is established

1867

Germany (HRE)

Charles IV is elected Holy Roman Emperor

1346

Charles IV establishes the Golden Bull

1356

A permanent group of seven electors is established.

Office of Holy Roman Emperor becomes hereditary title

1438

Gutenburg Bible is first printed by Johann Gutenburg

1450

Maximilian I weds Mary, heiress to Burgundy

1477

First great marriage to form the Hapsburg Empire

Maximilian becomes Holy Roman Emperor

1493

Jews are expelled from Bavaria

1498

Diet of Constance

1507

Recognizes the unity of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Imperial Chamber (the supreme judicial court) is founded.

Martin Luther publishes his "95 Theses"

1517

Death of Maximilian I

1519

Results in Charles of Spain to be elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy, Austria and Germany.

Martin Luther is excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church

1521

Later declared an outlaw by Charles V

Edict of Worms is issued by Emperor Charles V

1521

Martin Luther's work gets banned

German Peasant's Revolt occurs

1524 - 1525

Charles V gets into the Schmalkaldic War against the Protestant princes

1546

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Ends the Religious Wars: "cuius regio eius religio"

German princes form a Protestant Union

1608

The Catholic League is formed to counteract the Protestant Union

1609

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Fought largely in German lands, causing massive destruction and death.

Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor

1619

Edict of Restitution is issued

1629

An attempt to restore the religious and territorial settlement after the Peace of Augsburg.

Albrecht von Wallenstein is appointed supreme commander of HRE forces

1632

Frederick Williams rules

1640 - 1688

Peace of Westphalia effectively destroys the Holy Roman Empire

1648

German joins the League of Augsburg

1686

In order to halt Louis XIV's expansions.

Frederick the Great takes power

1712

Known as one of the most famous German rulers of all time for his military successes and his domestic reforms.

Pragmatic Sanction is issued

1713

Declared that Frederick's domains would go to his daughter, Maria Theresa.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Resulted from ignoring the Pragmatic Sanction

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

1748

Brings the War of Austrian Succession to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.

Age of Romanticism begins

1813

Dramatic turning point for German nationalism

German Confederation is formed at the Congress of Vienna

1815

Spain

Isabella I of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon wed

1469

Laid the foundation for the unification of Castile and Aragon

Spanish Inquisition begins

1478

Christopher Colombus first explores the New World

1492

Jews are expelled from Spain

1492

Spanish colonization of the Americas begin

1493

Treaty of Tordesillas is signed

1494

Agreed upon by the Spanish and Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly discovered lands.

Vasco da Gama completes first all water trade route between Europe and India.

1498

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Castile and Aragon

1516

Spanish conquest of Mexico

1519

Magellan becomes first European to voyage around the world

1519 - 1522

Prince Philip marries English Queen Mary I

1554

Spanish experience Dutch revolt against them

1568

Iberian Union of the crowns of Aragon, Castile, and Portugal is established

1580

Anglo Spanish War

1585 - 1604

Spanish Armada is defeated at the English Channel

1588

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

State borders are recognized as well as Calvinism

Peace of Pyrenees signed between the Spanish and French

1659

Goal was to end the war between the Spanish and French

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Spain declares war on Great Britain in the midst of the Seven Years' War

1761

Slave trade to Havana is opened

1789

Spain joins Peninsular War against Napoleon

1808 - 1814

Spanish Constitution is issued

1812

Russia

Michael Romanov elected tsar

1613

Marks the start of the Romanov dynasty

Peter I The Great is elected tsar

1682

Crimean Campaigns

1687

The Russian army launches an invasion against the Ottomans

Streltsy Uprising

1698

Streltsy overthrew their commanders, but later were defeated.

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Russia declares war on Sweden

Battle of Poltova

1709

Decisive Russian victory over the Swedes which marked the dawn of the Russian Empire.

Peter I establishes the Governing Estate

1711

Established to pass laws in his absense

Russian capital is moved to St. Petersburg

1713

Peter I establishes the collegia, or government ministries

1717

Peter I's son, Alexei is put to death

1718

Peter establishes the Holy Synod

1721

A secular body to head the Russian Orthodox Church

Treaty of Nystad

1721

Ends the Great Northern War

Table of Ranks is introduced

1722

A system introduced by Peter I which granted privilege based on service

Catherine I takes the throne

1725

Catherine I establishes the Supreme Privy Council, an advisory body

1726

Purgachev's Rebellion Occurs

1773

Catherine II establishes the Pale of Settlement

1791

An area into which Russian Jews were transported is established

Treaty of Tilsit is signed

1807

Ended the conflict between Russia and France

Russia is invaded by Napoleon's army, but eventually forces them out

1812

Duchy of Warsaw divided between Russia and Prussia in the Congress of Vienna

1815

Decembrist Revolt takes place

1825

Soldiers gathered at the Senate Square in St. Petersburg and declared their loyalty to the idea of a Russian constitution.

Poland

Beginning of the Nordic Seven Years War

1563

Signing of the Warsaw Pact

1573

Coronation of Henry of Vallois

1574

Ottoman War

1620 - 1621

Partitions of Poland

1772

Poland completely dissolved after being distributed between Austria, Russia, Prussia and France

Prussia

Frederick I of Brandenburg declares himself "King in Prussia"

1701

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Prussia fought against Austria, Russia, and France. Prussia was the winner.

Partitioning Poland

1772 - 1795

Prussia loses all land west of the Elbe

1807

Also loses portions of Poland, which left only Brandenburg, East Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia.

Prussia along with Austria, Russia, and Great Britain defeated Napoleon

1814

King Friedrich Wilhelm III merges the Lutheran and Reformed churches

1817

Netherlands

Cheese first weighed

1366

Jews in Holland are ordered to wear a badge

1451

Plague arrives in the Netherlands

1489

Emperor Charles V puts his son Philip II in charge of the Netherlands

1555

Antwerp reaches height of prosperity

1560

William of Orange demands freedom of conscience and religion

1564

Duke of Alba becomes guardian of the Netherlands to quell religious riots

1567

William of Orange is declared an outlaw

1568

Pacification of Ghent

1576

All 17 provinces of the Netherlands unite in the face of Spanish occupation

Union of Utrecht

1579

Brings together the seven Northern provinces of Netherlands

Dutch make first compound microscope

1600

Dutch East India Company is chartered

1602

Amsterdam opens a stock exchange

1619

First Anglo-Dutch War

1652 - 1654

Second Anglo-Dutch War

1666 - 1667

Third Anglo-Dutch War

1672 - 1674

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1750

Netherlands joins an alliance against Russia

1745

Napoleon Bonaparte imposes a new constitution on Holland

1801