Turkish Modernism

Global Events

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

French Revolution

1789

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

First World War

28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

Stock Market Crash

October 29, 1929

Second World War

1 September 1939 - 2 September 1945

World Economic Crisis

1970 - 1980

Turkish Facts

Reform Edict of 1839

1839

Ottoman modernism and reform

Constitutional Revolution

1908

new parliament, feels like a new day

Turkish War of Independence

May 19 1919 - October 11, 1922

Constitution of 1921

1921

Republic of Turkey Founded

1923

Constitution of 1924

1924

Turkish Language Project

1928

Military Coup of 1960

27 May 1960

Constitution of 1961 (liberal)

1961

written by professors

Coup by Memorandum of 1971

12 March 1971

1980 Turkish Coup d'Etat

12 September 1980

Constitution of 1982 (militaristic)

1982

Written by military experts - conservative, control of movement, language, and rights

1997 Military Memorandum (Coup)

February 28 1997

Postmodern coup

Ottoman Modernists

Important People

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk born

19 May 1881

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk dies

10 November 1938

Zurcher's Turkey

French Influence

1798 - 1830

closer involvement of Ottomans in British and Russian politics, first nationalist movements, first attempts at Western reforms

French and British influence

1830 - 1875

expansion of trade and loans to British empire, British and French support of empire, ongoing reforms, start of Ottoman constitutional movement, beginning of Muslim reaction against privileged Christians

Economic and political crisis

1873 - 1878

Slowed Economic Expansion, Foreign investment

1875 - 1908

first direct foreign investment in empire, ongoing administrative reforms, supressed national ideologies

Young Turk Revolution

1890 - 1908

Trying to revive empire

1908 - 1913

Committee of Union and Progress

1913 - 1918

one-party rule and victory of Turkish nationalism

Young Turks reestablished

1918 - 1922

Success of war of independence

Post-War Period*

1922 - 1926

Critically important - people were flattened after the war (famine, locusts, etc.), which was valuable for large scale changes

heyday of Kemalism

1926 - 1945

Transition to Democracy

1945 - 1950

A Troubled Democracy

1950 - 2004

Democratic Party rule

1950 - 1960

political and military integration of Turkey into Western alliance
economic development
financial dependence on US
downgrading secularist tendencies

'second' Turkish Republic

1960 - 1980

emerging movement and parties veering farther from center
legalized interference of amry in politics
capitalists and trade unions gained importance
migration to Europe as industrial workers
social instability and political extremism (1970s)
repression after military coup by memorandum in 1971

Power of Armed Forces

1980 - 1991

supression of existing political and trade unions
introduction of new economic policy
restrictive constitution of 1982
closer relationship with US

Return to pre-1980s politics

1991

structures from 1980 coup dismantled
main soci0-economic trends remain