Cold War

Benjamin Benfield

Events

KGB

1945 - 1991

Purpose was to extensively monitor public and private opinion and uncover revolutionary plots. Actively suppress unorthodox political and religious ideas. For war time, KGB had ready sabotage supplies in the target countries.

Yalta Conference

2/4/1945 - 2/11/1945

Was the war-time meeting of the US, UK, and the Soviet Union. Discussed Europe's post-war reorganization. Represented by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Stalin.

Postdem Conference

7/17/1945 - 8/2/1945

Soviet Union, US, and UK met. Divided Vietnam at the 16th parallel. Divided Germany and Austria each into 4 zones.

First Atomic Bomb

8/6/1945

The Uranium bomb was dropped on Hiroshima; nicknamed the Little Boy; weighed over 4.5 tons

Second Atomic Bomb

8/9/1945

Plutonium bomb was dropped on Nagasaki; nicknamed Fat Man; leveled half the city.

Iron Curtain Speech

3/5/1946

Presented by Winston Churchill. First to use the phrase Iron Curtain to describe the Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Iron Curtain served to keep people in and keep information out.

The Red Scare

1947 - 1957

The fear of Communism spreading; This was actually the second Red Scare; the first one was from 1919 - 1921; Also known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter, Senator Joseph McCarthy.

Truman Doctrine

3/12/1947

Created by US President Truman. The US would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into Soviet control. Considered the start of the Cold War.

CIA

12/18/1947

The US's national spy unit; Created under President Truman; The US felt the need for a post war Centralized Intelligence Organization

Marshall Plan

April 1948 - 1952

US gave money to help rebuild European economies after World War II in order to prevent the spread of communism. The plan was names after the Secretary of State George Marshall. The plan was one of the first elements of European integration. The plan was successful and by the end of the plan, all of the countries had surpassed pre-war economic levels.

NATO

4/14/1949

NATO is a treaty that is against the Soviet Union; NATO meets at several levels - heads of government, ministers, or permanent representatives; by 2009 the total membership was 28 countries.

Korean War

6/25/1950 - 7/27/1953

Fighting between North and South Korea. South Korea was supported by the United Nations. North Korea was supported by China.

Hydrogen Bomb

11/1/1952

First test was in 11/1/1952; Destroyed the island of Elugelab; Used the Teller - Ulam design

Ethel & Julius Rosenburg execution

6/19/1953

The only execution of civilians in US history; convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage; They were spies who gave information to the Soviets about the atomic bomb.

Warsaw Pact

5/14/1955

Was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. It was named where it was signed in Warsaw; remained intact until 1991; finally dissolved in July 1991

Vietnam War

11/1/1955 - 4/30/1975

Fighting between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union. South Vietnam was supported by the US and other anti-communist countries..

Sputnik

10/4/1957 - 1/4/1958

First artificial earth satellite. Took 96 minutes to complete each orbit of the earth. Transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz.

Fidel Castro becomes leader in Cuba

2/16/1959

Transformed his country into the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere. He hoped to topple world capitalism. Some see him as a dictator who has overseen multiple human rights abuses.

U2 Incident

5/1/1960

U2 spy plane shot down over Soviet Union airspace. Surviving pilot was Francis Gary Powers. The U2 had taken photos of military bases in Russia. Deteriorated the relationship between the US and the USSR.

Bay of Pigs

4/16/1961 - 4/20/1961

Unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by Brigade 2506. Intended to overthrow the leftist government. Brigade 2506 was trained by the US CIA. The invading forces were defeated in three days.

Berlin wall

8/13/1961 - 11/9/1989

West Berlin reffed to the wall as "the wall of shame"; Defenses were put up like guard house and anti - vehicle trenches; During this time period about 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of 600 people.

Cuban Missile Crisis

10/15/1962 - 10/28/1962

Thirteen day confrontation between the US and the combined Soviet Union and Cuba. Cuba wanted to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter any future invasion attempts by the US. The confrontation ended with the Soviet Union pulling all missiles from Cuba and the US promising never to invade Cuba.

JFK Assassination

11/22/1963

Assassinated in Dallas Texas; Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald; Lee shot from the Texas School Book Depository.

Man on the Moon

7/20/1969

The crew consists of three men they were Neal Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.; On July 16, 1969 Apollo 11 launched from the Kennedy Space Center; Neal Armstrong was the first man to walk the moon.

President Nixon goes to China

2/21/1972 - 2/28/1972

First US President to visit China: The President met with the leader of the Peoples Republic of China, Mao Zedong: Created better relations with China.

Iran takes and releases American hostages

11/4/1979 - 1/20/1981

52 Americans held as hostages for 444 days. A group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy. On April 4, 1980, there was a failed rescue attempt to free the hostages.

Soviets invade Afghanistan

12/24/1979 - 2/15/1989

Fighting between the Soviet-led Afghanistan forces against the majahideens. The majahideens were supported by the U.S. Millions of Afghans fled the country. Hundreds of thousands of Afghanistan civilians were killed.

Iran - Contra Scandal

8/20/1985 - 3/4/1987

Revealed in November 1986; Gave arms in exchange for hostages; Portion of money from weapons sale was given to the Contras

Reagan's Berlin Wall Speech

6/12/1987

The famous quote from this speech was "Tear down this wall." The challenge was by US President Ronald Reagan to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. The speech commemorated the 750th anniversary of Berlin.

Fall of the USSR

12/26/1991

Acknowledged the independence of all 15 republics. Marked the end of the cold war. Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin and was replaced with the Russian tri-color.