Empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height int he sixteenth century, the Muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade. Eventually fell to the Moroccans.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. Based in Istanbul after the fall of the Byzantine Empire form 1453 to 1922. Encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
First large group of African slaves brought to Europe. Company to trade with Africa formed in Lagos by Lançarote de Freitas.
Laid siege to Constantinople, causing its fall. Brought over eleven hundred years of Byzantine rule to an end and made the Ottomans seem invincible.
Ruled the Songhay kingdom int he western Sudan. Under his reign, it grew to the largest, most powerful empire in Wes Africa.
Objected to the way the new indulgence was preached(the indulgence preachers appeared to emphasize giving money more than the faith behind the act). Had forsaken money and marriage for a monastic life of prayer, self-denial, and study. Posted the 75 thesis. Started the Protestant Reformation.
First Portuguese explore to round the southern tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean. Spurred by the expectation of finding a passage around Africa to the rich trade of the Indian Ocean.
Funded by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Aragon. Attempt to get to the Indies by going west. Landed in the Caribbean, but Columbus still believed it to be the Indies.
Drew and imaginary lie down the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Lands east of the line in Africa and southern ASia could be claimed by Portugal; lands to the west in the Americas were reserved for Spain.
Iranian kingdom established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
Well-educated Frenchman who turned from the study of law to theology after experiencing a religious conversion. Became a highly influential Protestant leader. Went further tan Luther in curtailing the power of clerical hierarchy and in simplifying religious rituals. Denied that even human faith could merit salvation.
Spanish wanted control of Mexican mining centers. Searched for silver. Ordered by Cortes. Spaniards were able to take over population larger than them with the technology they had that the natives did not.
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Known as Suleiman Kanuni, "The Lawgiver." Significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Muslim state exercising domination over most of Indian in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Founded by a Spanish nobleman, Ignatius of Loyola. Helped stem the Protestant tide to win back some adherents by their teaching and reaching. Important to the Catholic Reformation.
Met in three sessions and painstakingly distinguished proper Catholic doctrines from Protestant "errors." Reaffirmed the supremacy of the pope and called for a number of reforms.
Mughal emperor. Permitted the Portuguese to continue their maritime monopoly in return for allowing one ship a year to carry pilgrims to Mecca without paying the Portuguese a fee even after the Mughals took control of he Gujarat.
Most brilliant of the Copernicans. Built telescope to look closer at the heavens. Saw heavenly bodies were not he perfectly smooth spheres of the Aristotelians.
Emperor of China during the latter Ming period. Inattention to government affair contributed to abuses of power, violence and corruption, and preparing the way for invasion by the Manchu who subsequently established the Qing dynasty.
Spain's attempt to invade Britain and bring the country under the Catholic rue of Spain. At its time, it was the larges fleet ever seen in Europe and King Philip II of Spain considered it invincible. The Armada was destroyed on rocky coasts, and some was blown off their course due to changing winds.
The last of the three shogunates of Japan. Established by a new shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu. Gave Japan more political unity than the islands had seen in centuries.
The worst of many international conflicts between the Holy Roman Empire, France, and England. Caused long-lasting depopulation and economic decline in much of the Holy Roman Empire. Ended by the Peace of Westphalia.
English political philosopher. Disputed monarchial claims to absolute authority by divine right in his influential: Second Treatise of Civil Government. Said that rulers derived their authority from the consent of the governed and were subject to the law.
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the MIng Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet.
Put and end to the Thirty Years War.
Broader conflict the French and Indian war led to. British victory led to undisputed control of North America east of the Mississippi River while also forcing France to surrender most of its holdings in India. Increases Britain's War debt.
Settlers were British convicts sent into exile from British prisons. Over the first few decades, the colonists had only slight contact with the "Aborigines." Penal colonies ended with the flood of free European settlers interested in the discovery of gold.
Conflicts between wealthy whites and the mixed-race population because of harsh punishments and poor living conditions. Rebellious slaves eventually gained upper hand under the leadership of Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverure, a former domestic slave, who created a disciplined military force.
British slave trade abolition bill was given Royal Assent. The anti-slavery campaign developed alongside events such as the French Revolution, as well as retaliation by maroon communities, sporadic unrest, and individual acts of resistance from enslaved people in the British colonies.