1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

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Ottoman Dynasty

1300 - 1922

A state built by the Turkish, Muslim, and a few Christian converts to Islam, the empire grew to become the largest Muslim empire since the original Islamic caliphate.

Songhai Empire

1340 - 1591

The Songhai Empire of West Africa drew it's wealth from trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by an indigenous Muslim dynasty. The Empire eventually brought to an end by the Moroccans which weakened the trans-Saharan trade in the western Sudan.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Henry, the third son of the king of Portugal, devoted his life to promoting explorations in the South Atlantic, converting Africans to Christianity, making contact with existing Christian rulers in Africa, and launching joint crusades with them against the Ottomans.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

1444

The Portuguese were the first of many to become a part of the New World slave trade where slaves were considered cargo on ships only to be sold when they reached the New World for labor.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1451 - 1481

Conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali was the King of Songhay during it's growth into the largest, most powerful empire in West Africa. Ali was feared by his enemies because of his great military power and revered by his people who called him, Ali the Great.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

A professor whom objected to the indulgences being made in the church and the ways that the church had begun to act in Europe. He argued that salvation came from religious faith and not from doing certain things that the church told people to do. Luther began the movement known as the Protestant Reformation.

Dias' Voyage into Indian Ocean

1488

The first Portuguese explorer to travel around the southern tip of Africa, entering the Indian Ocean, pushed by the expectation of increasing rich trade in the Indian Ocean.

Columbus' First Voyage

1492

Columbus was originally searching for a new route to Asia (India in particular) for more efficient trades but discovered the "New World" in the Americas instead, reshaping the world view on trade.

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Created an imaginary line down the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean to show which areas belonged to and were claimed by both Portugal and Spain to prevent confusion.

Safavid Dynasty

1502 - 1722

Iranian Empire resembling the Ottoman Empire in many ways and was built on it's royal tradition in pre-Islamic legends and the adoption of Shi'ism.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

A well-educated Frenchman who went from studying law to theology after a religious conversion and became a highly influential Protestant leader. He simplified religious rituals even farther than Matin Luther and taught that salvation was a gift from God given to those He "predestined" for salvation.

Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Hernan Cortes set out to assault the Mexican mainland in search of slaves and establish trade and eventually captured the capital Tenochtitlan which was caused greatly by the spread of smallpox.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

One of the greatest rulers of the Ottoman Empire remembered as a fierce conqueror of the Islamic Religion and while he was sultan, the Ottoman Empire reached it's peak and prosperity.

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1761

Land ruled by the Muslim minority that used it's power to control the majority of the Indian state during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Foundation of Society of Jesus

1540

Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, and Spanish nobleman, that helped to stem the Protestant help and win back some adherent through their teaching and preaching. The activities of this new religious order were very important to the Catholic Reformation.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council of the Roman Catholic Church that focused its meetings on traditional Catholic beliefs and against the Protestants.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

A Mughal ruler who strove for social harmony more than his hunger for more territory and money. He succeeded the throne at the age of thirteen and made himself the center of a new Divine Faith, consisting of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh, and Christian beliefs.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo built and used a telescope with which he found that he could magnify objects thirty times higher from normal eye sight. He discovered and wrote that the earth was not alone in the universe and was very prone to change.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

The emperor of the Ming Dynasty, beginning his rule at the age of nine. He was a very good ruler towards the beginning of his time but his work declined as time went on, witnessing the steady decline of the Dynasty.

Spanish Armada

1588

The Spanish fleet sailing against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia intending to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England, ending her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands.

Tokugawa shogunate

1603 - 1868

The time in Japanese history where the caste system was most severe, eventually leading to social unrest and the overthrowing of the Shogunate with the Emperor Meigi set as the replacement.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The Holy Roman Empire, France and England, engaged in many international conflicts consisting of conflict over power, leading monarchs to expend vast sums of money and caused widespread devastation and death. The Thirty Years War was the worst of many conflicts that cause long-lasting depopulation and economic decline in the Holy Roman Empire.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

An English political philosopher who argued against the monarchial claims to absolute authority by divine right but that rulers should receive their authority from the people and were to be held by the law like all other citizens.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1783

The empire established in China by the Manchu family after overthrowing the Ming Empire. The empire went on the conquer all former Ming territories, taiwan, the lower Amur River basin, Inner Mongolia, eastern Turkestan, and Tibet resulting in a state that was more than twice the size of the former Ming Empire.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

The series of signed peace treaties that ended the Thirty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years war between Spain and the Dutch Republic.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

A series of wars fought between France and England. England took the French capital of Quebec leading to the French forces in Canada to surrender and a peace agreement where France gave Canada to the English and Louisiana to Spain.

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia

1788

Australia was chosen by Britain to become the new colony of Great Britain after the Revolutionary War with the American colonies. Britain used convict labor to build up the infrastructure of the new colony instead of using slave labor.

Haitian Revolution

1789 - 1804

The French slave revolt in the French colony Saint-Domingue which eliminated slavery and founded the Haitian Republic. This is considered the most successful slave rebellion in the Americas and changed history for Africans in the New World.

End of British Slave Trade

1807

Britain banned slave trade and followed through by creating harsh fines for any slave found aboard a British ship. The Royal Navy then tried to stop other nations from participating in the Atlantic Slave Trade because they found it equal to piracy.

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