The committee was instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them.
Truman Doctrine: The U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball
displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation (generalizing from his social circle to characterize the underground, anti-conformist youth gathering in New York) literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images, along with a cartoonish depiction of the real-life people and the spiritual quest in Jack Kerouac's autobiographical fiction.
refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice; Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents.
banned the segregation of public schools; The Brown decision of 1954 marked the radical shift in the Court's—and the nation's—priorities from issues of property rights to civil liberties.
Montgomery Bus Boycott: Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person ENDED: United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States
the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War
a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over the airspace of the Soviet Union.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: independent student-led groups began direct-action protests against segregation in dozens of southern communities
a case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well, as had previously been the law, as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts.
Ole Miss riot: fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi
one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans
In this case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys, extending the identical requirement made on the federal government under the Sixth Amendment.
Birmingham campaign was a strategic movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment that black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama; people shot with high-pressure water hoses and attacked with police dogs
a nonfiction book by Betty Friedan; asked to conduct a survey of her former Smith College classmates for their 15th anniversary reunion; the results, in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives; originally intended to publish an article on the topic, not a book, but no magazine would publish her article.
a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax
a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment
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Malcolm X prepared to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, a disturbance broke out in the 400-person audience; a man seated in the front row rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a double-barreled sawed-off shotgun. Two other men charged the stage and fired semi-automatic handguns, hitting Malcolm X several times.
the purpose of NOW is "To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men."
This case had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights
an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King was shot while standing on a balcony outside his second-floor room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. He died at the scene. On June 5, 1968, U.S. presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was shot during his speech at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Kennedy died from his injuries the following day.
a music festival celebrating peace and music