Post World War II

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

Instructed to investigate the status of and civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them. Terms of reference: to examine the condition of civil rights in the U.S., to produce a written report of their findings and to submit recommendations on improving civil rights in the U.S.

Baseball

1947

Jackie Robinson

Truman

1947

integrated the military

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

Known for the sweeping decisions of the Warren Court, which ended school segregation and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school-sponsored prayer, and requiring "one-man-one vote" rules of apportionment.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954

Segregation in public schools unconstitutional: because of 14th amendment, Supreme Court agreed & overturned Plessy case. Separate facilities unconstitutional and segregation in schools should end.

Montgomery, AL

1955

Montgomery Bus Boycott: Blacks of the city decided that they would boycott the buses until they were allowed to sit anywhere they wanted. (Rosa Parks)

Greensboro, NC

1957

The Greensboro sit-ins: nonviolent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworth's department store reverse its policy of racial segregation.

Eisenhower

1960

Ordered in federal troops to protect nine black children integrating a public school, the first time the federal government had sent troops to the South since Reconstruction.

SNCC

1960 - 1970

One of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. SNCC legacy is the destruction of the psychological shackles which had kept black southerners in physical and mental peonage.

Mapp v. Ohio

1961

The Warren Court left a legacy of judicial activism in the area of civil rights law as well as in the area of civil liberties—specifically, the rights of the accused as addressed in Amendments 4 through 8.

Mississippi

1962

Ole Miss riot of 1962: fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.

Alabama

1963

The Birmingham Bombing: 4 black girls were killed by a bomb while they were attending Sunday school at the 16th Street Baptist Church

Gideon v. Wainwright

1963

Supreme Court ruled that state courts are required under the 14th amendment to provide counsel for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.

Feminine Mystique

1963

Nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

March on Washington

August 28,1963

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital.

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

After a year is was decided by the court that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.

24th Amendment

1964

Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Civil Rights Act

1964

Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations").

Assassination

1965

Malcolm X was assassinated

Riots:1965-1968

1965 - 1968

Watt's Riots, City riots

Civil Rights Act of 1965

1965

National legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

Court said that whatever a defendant says can not be used as evidence if he or she is not read their Miranda Rights. This case developed the Miranda rights.

NOW (National Organization for Women)

1966

Was founded in 1966 and the main goal was to try and get equal rights for women.

Thurgood Marshall

1967

First African American justice to be apart of the Supreme Court.

Assassinations 1968

1968

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated

Woodstock

1969

A large music festival with all the hippies about equality.

ERA

1972

A proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women that failed to be passed.

Cold War

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

1938 - 1975

Investigated disloyalty and subversive activities in organizations they thought had communist ties.

Eastern Europe

1945 - 1991

U.S.S.R. turned from a capitalist nation to a communists dictatorship under Stalin. While the U.S. controlled the west, the U.S.S.R. controlled Eastern Europe slowly changing them to communists.

Truman Doctrine

01/01/1947 - 12/30/1947

President Truman’s promise to help nations struggling against communist movements.

Containment Policy

01/01/1947 - 12/31/1947

Us policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism.

National Security Act

07/26/1947 - 1949

Mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government.

Marshall Plan

01/01/1948 - 12/31/1948

A plan that the U.S. provided aid to all European nations that needed it.

Atomic Weapons

1949 - 1950

Soviet Union had its first atomic bomb by 1949, but the U.S. had already had the technology to make a atomic weapon from WWII. Both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. competed in a nuclear arms race to have nuclear supremacy.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

04/04/1949 - 04/09/2013

Only the attacked will be defended by the NATO members.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

U.S. w/ U.N. helps S. Korea vs. N. Korea a & China

Truman vs MacArthur

01/01/1950 - 12/31/1950

Truman dismissed General MacArthur.

Rosenberg Case

June 19, 1953

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed committing espionage during a time of war. Passed info about atomic bomb to Russia.

U-2 incident

01/01/1955 - 12/31/1955

U.S.S.R. shot down a U.S. spy plane. U.S. secret tactics were revealed on obtaining information.

Sputnik

1957

The Soviet Union sent into orbit Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite in history. Sputnik’s launch came as an unnerving surprise to the United States. The space age had dawned and America’s Cold War rival suddenly appeared technologically superior.

Bay of Pigs

04/01/1961 - 12/31/1961

JFK approved the CIA to overthrow Fidel's Castro's regime in Cuba.

Berlin Wall

06/01/1961 - 12/31/1961

Germany was divided into West and East. The capital of Germany Berlin was also divided into West and East through the Berlin wall.

Cuban Missle Crisis

10/01/1962 - 12/31/1962

Russia was building missiles in Cuba to launch over to the U.S. Kennedy then announced that he setting up a naval blockade until the weapons were removed.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

President Lyndon Johnson dispatched U.S. planes against the attackers (North Vietnamese) in the Gulf of Tonkin and got Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions.

Escalation

1965 - 1968

Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder, leading to over 184,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam within one year. He continued gradually adding troops and by the end of 1967, the U.S. had over 485,000 troops in Vietnam.

1968 election

1968

The Republican nominee, former Vice-President Richard Nixon, won the election over the Democratic nominee, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation’s cities, torn by riots and crime.

Tet offensive

1968

North Vietnamese troops and Viet Cong forces attacked around 100 major cities and towns in South Vietnam, breaking the ceasefire that had been called for the Vietnamese holiday of Tet.

SALT II

1969 - 1979

2nd round of talks between cold war super powers about armament control.

Vietnamization

1969

President Richard Nixon introduced a new strategy called Vietnamization that was aimed at ending American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam.

End of the vietnam war

1975

South Vietnam surrendered on April 30, 1975, following the fall of its capital.

Star Wars

1983

Strategic Defense Initiative

Glasnost

1985

policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.

Perestroika

1986

political movement for reform within the communist party

Mikhail Gorbachev

1988 - 1991

First and only president of the Soviet Union.

Tiananmen Square

04/15/1989 - 06/04/1989

Known as the June 4th incident, protests in Beijing cased the Massacre of June 4th which the Chinese military fired upon civilians causing many casualties.