Instructed to investigate the status of and civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them. Terms of reference: to examine the condition of civil rights in the U.S., to produce a written report of their findings and to submit recommendations on improving civil rights in the U.S.
integrated the military
Known for the sweeping decisions of the Warren Court, which ended school segregation and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school-sponsored prayer, and requiring "one-man-one vote" rules of apportionment.
Segregation in public schools unconstitutional: because of 14th amendment, Supreme Court agreed & overturned Plessy case. Separate facilities unconstitutional and segregation in schools should end.
Montgomery Bus Boycott: Blacks of the city decided that they would boycott the buses until they were allowed to sit anywhere they wanted. (Rosa Parks)
The Greensboro sit-ins: nonviolent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworth's department store reverse its policy of racial segregation.
Ordered in federal troops to protect nine black children integrating a public school, the first time the federal government had sent troops to the South since Reconstruction.
One of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. SNCC legacy is the destruction of the psychological shackles which had kept black southerners in physical and mental peonage.
The Warren Court left a legacy of judicial activism in the area of civil rights law as well as in the area of civil liberties—specifically, the rights of the accused as addressed in Amendments 4 through 8.
Ole Miss riot of 1962: fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.
The Birmingham Bombing: 4 black girls were killed by a bomb while they were attending Sunday school at the 16th Street Baptist Church
Supreme Court ruled that state courts are required under the 14th amendment to provide counsel for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.
Nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital.
After a year is was decided by the court that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.
Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations").
Malcolm X was assassinated
Watt's Riots, City riots
National legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
Court said that whatever a defendant says can not be used as evidence if he or she is not read their Miranda Rights. This case developed the Miranda rights.
Was founded in 1966 and the main goal was to try and get equal rights for women.
First African American justice to be apart of the Supreme Court.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated
A large music festival with all the hippies about equality.
A proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women that failed to be passed.
Investigated disloyalty and subversive activities in organizations they thought had communist ties.
U.S.S.R. turned from a capitalist nation to a communists dictatorship under Stalin. While the U.S. controlled the west, the U.S.S.R. controlled Eastern Europe slowly changing them to communists.
President Truman’s promise to help nations struggling against communist movements.
Us policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism.
Mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government.
A plan that the U.S. provided aid to all European nations that needed it.
Soviet Union had its first atomic bomb by 1949, but the U.S. had already had the technology to make a atomic weapon from WWII. Both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. competed in a nuclear arms race to have nuclear supremacy.
Only the attacked will be defended by the NATO members.
U.S. w/ U.N. helps S. Korea vs. N. Korea a & China
Truman dismissed General MacArthur.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed committing espionage during a time of war. Passed info about atomic bomb to Russia.
U.S.S.R. shot down a U.S. spy plane. U.S. secret tactics were revealed on obtaining information.
The Soviet Union sent into orbit Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite in history. Sputnik’s launch came as an unnerving surprise to the United States. The space age had dawned and America’s Cold War rival suddenly appeared technologically superior.
JFK approved the CIA to overthrow Fidel's Castro's regime in Cuba.
Germany was divided into West and East. The capital of Germany Berlin was also divided into West and East through the Berlin wall.
Russia was building missiles in Cuba to launch over to the U.S. Kennedy then announced that he setting up a naval blockade until the weapons were removed.
President Lyndon Johnson dispatched U.S. planes against the attackers (North Vietnamese) in the Gulf of Tonkin and got Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions.
Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder, leading to over 184,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam within one year. He continued gradually adding troops and by the end of 1967, the U.S. had over 485,000 troops in Vietnam.
The Republican nominee, former Vice-President Richard Nixon, won the election over the Democratic nominee, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation’s cities, torn by riots and crime.
North Vietnamese troops and Viet Cong forces attacked around 100 major cities and towns in South Vietnam, breaking the ceasefire that had been called for the Vietnamese holiday of Tet.
2nd round of talks between cold war super powers about armament control.
President Richard Nixon introduced a new strategy called Vietnamization that was aimed at ending American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam.
South Vietnam surrendered on April 30, 1975, following the fall of its capital.
Strategic Defense Initiative
policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
political movement for reform within the communist party
First and only president of the Soviet Union.
Known as the June 4th incident, protests in Beijing cased the Massacre of June 4th which the Chinese military fired upon civilians causing many casualties.