AP Euro Semester 1 Timeline

Main

Age of Witchhunts

1400 - 1700

Growing cost of Warfare

1400 - 1500

Second Holy League

October 1511

The Holy League defeats the French

1512 - 1513

Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther

January 3 1521

Decet Pontificem Romanum

Turks overran Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs

1526

Diet of Aubsburg

1530

Lutherans formed Schmalkaldic League

February 1531

imperial armies crushed Protestant Schmalkaldic League

1547

Age of Religious Wars

1550 - 1650

Peace of Passau

August 1552

guaranteed Lutherans religious freedom

Peace of Aubsburg

1555

Battle of Lepanto

1571

Holy League formed

May 1571

France and England recognized independence of provinces

1596

Europe's population exceeds 70 million

1600

Catholic League formed

1609

On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres in Index of Prohibited Books

1616

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Bohemian Period

1618 - 1625

Battle of White Mountain

1620

Danish Period

1625 - 1629

Swedish Period

1630 - 1635

Swedish king wins the battle at Breitenfeld

1630

Swedish-French Period

1635 - 1648

France enters the Thirty Years War

1635

Peace of Prague

1635

Peace of Westphalia

1648

France and Spain's war outside the empire ends

1659

War of Devolution

1667 - 1668

Louis invades the United Provinces

1672

Orange unites the HRE, Spain, Lorraine, and Brandenburg against Louis

1673

The Peace of Nijmwegen

1678 - 1679

Turkish siege of Vienna

1683

Nine Years' War

1688 - 1697

Louis invaded palatinate

1688

Peace of Ryswick

September 1697

Peace treaty between Turks/Habsburgs

1699

Hapsburg-Ottoman peace treaty

1699

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Agricultural Revolution in Low Countries and Britain

1700 - 1750

Low Countries- mostly Netherlands and Belgium

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Grand Alliance formed

September 1701

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Treaty of Rastatt

1714

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II invades Silesia

1740

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Enlightened absolutists encourage economic growth

1763 - 1769

1st Partition of Poland

1772

American Revolution

1776

Declaration of Pillnitz

1791

France declares war on Austria

1792

France declares war on Britain

1793

2nd Partition of Poland

1793

3rd Partition of Poland

1795

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Chaired by Metternich

Revolutions in France, Belgium, Poland

1830

Morse patents telegraph

1837

In America

Europe-wide Revolutions

1848

The Communist Manifesto

1848

Written by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels

Britain

pope Edward I in power

1272 - 1307

Henry VI in power

1422 - 1461

Wars of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Edward IV in power

1461 - 1483

Henry VI in power (restoration

1470 - 1471

Richard III in control

1483 - 1485

Henry VII in control

1485 - 1509

Parliament vote Henry VII as customs revenues for life

1485

Henry VII in power

1485 - 1509

Henry Tudor defeat Richard III

August 1485

Court of Star Chamber Created

1487

Henry VIII in power

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII's first marriage

1509

Henry VIII in power

1509 - 1547

Utopia

1516

Written by Sir Thomas More

Utopia by Thomas More published

1516

Thomas More Response to Luther

1523

Henry VIII decided to divorce

1527

Reformation Parliament

1529 - 1536

Act of Supremacy

1534

Henry VIII declared himself supreme over the church

Act of Supremacy

1534

Publication of Coverdale Bible

1535

Thomas More executed

1535

Six Articles

1539

Jesuits founded

1540

by Ignatius of Loyola

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Edward VI succeeds to throne

1547

Act of Uniformity

1549

Mary Tudor restores Catholic doctrine

1553 - 1558

Elizabeth I fashions an Anglican religious settlement

1558 - 1603

Issuance of the Thirty-Nine Articles

1563

Pope Pius v "excommunicate"s Elizabeth

1570

Elizabeth signs the Treaty of Nonsuch

1585

A Trew Law of Free Monarchies by James I

1598

James I of England comes to power

1603 - 1625

Death of Elizabeth

March 23 1603

England makes peace with Spain

1604

Millenary Petition

January 1604

The Advancement of Learning by Bacon

1605

King James Version of the Bible published

1611

Book of Sports by James I

1618

Novum Organum

1620

Written by Francis Bacon

Novum Organum by Bacon

1620

continental war between England and Spain start

1624

Charles I in power

1625 - 1649

New Atlantis by Bacon

1627

Buckingham assassinated

1628

Petition of Right

1628

England makes peace with France

1629

Charles I dissolves Parliament

January 1629

England makes peace with Spain

1630

William Laud as archbishop of Canterbury

1633

Ship Money expanded

1634

Charles and Laud imposed episcopal system and prayer book to Scotland

1637

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

Battle of Newburn

1640

Earl of Stafford executed

1641

Parliament presents grand remonstrance to Charles

December 1 1641

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

Charles invaded Parliament

January 1642

English Civil Wars

1642 - 1648

Parliament's alliance with Scotland

1643

William Laud executed

1645

Pride's Purge

December 1648

English Commonwealth under Cromwell

1649 - 1653

Age of Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

Charles I executed

1649

Charles I executed

January 30 1649

Navigation Acts

1651

Leviathan by Hobbes

1651

Leviathan

1657

Written by Thomas Hobbes

Oliver Cromwell dead

1658

Cromwell dies

1658

restoration of Stuart monarchy

1660

Charles II in power

1660 - 1685

Society of London founded

1660

Boyle's law formulated

1660

By Robert Boyle

Restoration of the Stuart monarchy

1660

Charles II becomes King of England

Observations upon Experimental Philosophy by Margaret Cavendish

1666

Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World by Margaret Cavendish

1666

The Great Fire of London

1666

Paradise Lost

1667

Written by John Milton

Grounds of Natural Philosophy by Margaret Cavendish

1668

Treaty of Dover with France

1670

Passing of Test Act

1672

Popish Plot

1678

James II in power

1685 - 1688

Principia (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)

1687

Written by Isaac Newton

Principa Mathematica by Newton

1687

Glorious Revolution

1688

Glorious Revolution

1688

Essay Concerning Human Understanding

1689

Written by John Locke

Bill of Rights

1689

William and Mary comes to power

1689

Letter Concerning Toleration by Locke

1689

Second Treatise on Civil Government

1690

Written by John Locke

Treatise of Government by Locke

1690

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by Locke

1690

Bank of England chartered

1694

Act of Settlement

1701

Queen Anne in power

1702 - 1714

Act of Union creates UK

1707

Hanoverian dynasty came to throne

1714

Robert Walpole dominates British politics

1720 - 1742

George II in power

1727 - 1760

Excise-tax crisis

1733

Treatise on Human Nature

1739

Written by David Hume

British Industrial Revolution

1740 - 1860

Inquiry into Human Nature by Hume

1748

Industrial Revolution starts in England

1760 - 1880

British dominance in India

1763

Steam engine invented

1769

Invented by James Watt

Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

1776

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbon

1776

Wealth of Nations

1776

Written by Adam Smith- Capitalism

Power loom invented

1785

Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Wollstonecraft

1792

Vindication of the Rights of Woman

1792

Written by Mary Wollstonecraft

Essay on the Principle of Population

1798

Written by Thomas Malthus

Smallpox vaccine discovered

1798

Discovered by Edward Jenner

Catholic Emancipation Act

1829

British extend male suffrage

1832 - 1867

Reform Act of 1832

1832

Opium Wars

1839 - 1842

Railway construction boom

1840 - 1860

British child labor legislation

1842 - 1847

Repeal of Corn Laws

1846

On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection

1859

Written by Charles Darwin

On Liberty

1859

Written by John Stuart Mill

Man Versus the State

1884

Written by Herbert Spencer

France

Pope Clement VI in power

1342 - 1352

Pope Clement VI proclamed the existence of "treasury of merit"

1343

Charles VII in power

1422 - 1461

Louis Xi in power

1461 - 1483

Charles VIII in reign

1483 - 1498

Estates General Did Not Meet

1484 - 1560

Estates General suspended

1484

Charles VIII invades Italy

1494

Louis XII in power

1498 - 1515

Louis XII invades Milan

1499

Francis I in power

1515 - 1547

Francis I leades third invasion

1515

Won Concordat of Bologna

1516

John Calvin converses to Protestantism

1534

benefices published

May 1534

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

1536

Written by John Calvin, definitively issued in 1559

Calvin arrive to Geneva

July 1536

Execution of Michael Servetus

1553

damaged Calvin's reputation

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

1559

Ends the Habsburg-Valois wars

Francis II succeeds to French throne

1559

Conslpiracy of Amboise fails

1560

FWOR

1562 - 1598

John Calvin dead

1564

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24 1572

Henry of Navarre comes to power

1589

Assasination of Henry III

1589

Edict of Nantes

1598

Louis XIII in power

1610 - 1643

Henry IV assassinated

1610

Treaty of Fontainebleau

1611

Peace of Alais

1629

Discourse on Method by Descrates

1637

Reign of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Fronde revolt

1648 - 1652

Fronde

1649 - 1652

Provincial Letters by Pascal

1653

Treaty of Pyrenees

1659

Louis banned Jansenism

1660

French Academy of Science founded

1666

Louis XIV's Wars

1667 - 1714

Louis XIV evokes Edict of Nantes

1685

Edict of Nantes revoked

1685

Death of Louis XIV

1715

Louis XV becomes King of France

1715

Mississippi Bubble

1719

Persian Letters by Montesquieu

1721

Cardinal Fleury became the chief minister

1726 - 1743

Letters On the English by Voltaire

1733

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton by Voltaire

1738

Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu

1748

Spirit of Laws

1748

Written by Montesquieu- Constitutionalism, seperation of powers, ending of slavery, preservation of civil liberties, governments should reflect the social and geographical aspects of the community

Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences by Rousseau

1750

Encyclopedia

1751

Edited by Denis Diderot

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality by Rousseau

1755

Candide by Voltaire

1759

Candide

1759

Voltaire

Social Contract

1761

Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract and Emile by Rousseau

1762

Treatise on Tolerance by Voltaire

1763

Treatise on Toleration

1763

Written by Voltaire

Philosophical Dictionary by Voltaire

1764

Approval of doubling of Third Estate

1788

Louis XVI summons the Estates General

1788

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Beginning of French Revolution

1789

Estates General opens at Versailles

May 5 1789

Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly

June 17 1789

Storming of the Bastille

July 14 1789

The Great Fear

July 17 1789 - August 5 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26 1789

Women's march to Versailles

October 5 1789

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

Chapelier Law

1791

Convention meets and monarchy is abolished

1792

Committee of Public Safety formed

1793

King Louis XVI beheaded

1793

Cult of Reason

1793

Robespierre is executed

1794

Fall of Robespierre

1794

Constitution of the Year III, Directory established

1795

End of Directory and coup of Napoleon

1799

Napoleonic Wars

1800 - 1815

The Napoleonic Codes

1804

Napoleon becomes emperor

1804

Continental System

1806

Battle of Waterloo

1815

Belgium- Napoleon beaten by the Seventh Coalition

What is Property?

1840

Written by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon- "Property is theft"

Italy

French Kings ruled Naples

1266 - 1435

Viscoti family came to power

1278

Black Death

1348 - 1350

Plague in Florence

1348

Death of Petrach, “father” of humanism

1374

Renaissance In Italy

1375 - 1527

Humanism, Secularism and Individualism. People looked back to the classics. Platonism and artists such as Giotto, Massacio, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo also flourished.

Death of Boccaccio

1375

Ciompi Revolt

1378

Complete text of Quintilian’s Education of the Orator discovered

1416

Cosimo de Medici in power

1434

Council of Ferrara-Florence

1439

Lorenzo Valla the Latin Language

1444

Sforza family came to power

1450

Fall of Constantinople to Turks

1453

Treaty of Lodi

1454 - 1455

one third of population of Florence officially listed as paupers

1457

Pope Sixtus IV extended indulgence to cover purgatory

1476

Lorenzo the Magnificent in power

1478 - 1492

Milanese Despot rise to power

1490

Borgia Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

End of Treaty of Lodi

1494

League of Venice Formed

March 1495

Savanorala executed

May 1498

Borgias conquer Romagna

1500

Pope Julius II in reign

1503 - 1513

Pope Julius II drove out Venetians out of Romagna

1509

Machiavelli writes The Prince

1513

Leo X in power

1513 - 1521

Battle of Marignano

1518

Clement VII in power

1523 - 1534

Sack of Rome

1527

The Prince

1532

Written by Niccolo Machiavelli

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres by Copernicus

1543

Index of Prohibited Books

1559

Promoted by Pope Paul IV

The Starry Messenger by Galileo

1610

Letters on Sunspots by Galileo

1613

Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina by Galileo

1615

Galileo given permission to resume discussing the Copernican system

1623

Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems by Galileo

1632

Galileo condemned by Roman Catholic Authorities

1633

Four Rivers fountain

1651

Sculpted by Gian Lorenzo Bernini- Baroque

Academy of Experiments in Florence

1657

Four Seasons

1725

Composed by Antonio Vivaldi

On Crimes and Punishments by Beccaria

1764

Holy Roman Empire

Golden Bull

1356

Invention of Printing with Movable Type

1454

Johann Guttenberg

Emperor Maximilian I in power

1493 - 1519

Letters of Obscure Men published

1515

Martin Luther under attack

1517

Luther posted ninety-five theses against indulgence

October 31 1517

Posted the theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg

Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation published

1520

Written by Martin Luther

Luther became an "outlaw"

May 26 1521

William Tyndale translated New Testament to English

1524 - 1525

Peasant protest

1525

Rebaptism became a capital offense

1529

Anabaptist extremists came to power in Munster

1534 - 1535

Luther drew up Schmalkaldic Articles

1538

Luther dies

1546

Frederick III in power

1559 - 1576

The New Astronomy by Kepler

1609

Berlin Academy of Science founded

1700

Maria Winkelmann discovers a comet

1792

Max Weber publishes The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

1904

Austria

Leopold I ruling in Austria

1658 - 1705

Turks besiege Vienna

1683

Charles VI in power

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Reign of Maria Theresa

1745 - 1765

Reign of Joseph II

1764 - 1790

Reign of Leopold II

1790 - 1792

Austria abolishes Serfdom

1848

Prussia

Reign of Frederick William the Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Frederick I in power

1688 - 1713

Hohenzollern rule of Prussia

1701 - 1918

Reign of Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Frederick II invades Silesia

1740

Reign of Frederick the Great (Frederick II)

1740 - 1786

Prussia ends serfdom

1810

Russia

Reign of Ivan the Terrible

1533 - 1584

"Time of Troubles"

1584 - 1613

Michael Romanov comes to power

1613

Peter the Great becomes Tsar

1682

Reign of Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

European Tour of Peter the Great

1697

St. Petersburg founded

1703

Battle of Poltava

1709

Russia defeats Sweden

Peace of Nystad

1721

Ends the Great Northern War

Table of Ranks issued

1722

Peter the Great dies

1725

Reign of Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Russia at war with Ottomans

1768 - 1774

Russia annexes Crimea

1783

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Spain

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella

1469

Isabella of Castile in power

1474 - 1504

The latter established

1479

National agency run by Torquemada, Isabella's confessor

Ferdinand of Aragon in power

1479 - 1516

Conquered Moors

1482 - 1492

Jews exiled from Spain

1492

Controlled Naples

1504

Spanish Armada

May 30 1587

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra starts writing Don Quixote

1603

re-Catholicized Bohemia/ conquered Palatinate

1622

Reign of Philip V

1700 - 1746

Netherlands

Greek New Testament written by Erasmus published

1516

Latin Translation of New Testament by Erasmus published

1519

Four provinces joins the Union of Brussels

January 1557

Opposition to Regent Margaret's government

1564

Spanish Fury

November 4 1576

Pacification of Ghent

November 8 1576

formation of Union of Utrecht

1579

formation of Union of Arras

January 1579

Declared Independence

July 22 1581

William of Orange assassinated

July 1584

Dutch East Indies Company chartered

1602

Twelve Years' Truce

1609

United Provinces independent

1648

Theologico-Political Treatise by Spinoza

1670

Ethics by Spinoza

1677

Switzerland

Ulrich Zwingli in power

1519

Swiss Reformation

March 1522

Conrad Grebel performed the first adult rebaptism

January 1525

Anabaptism originated and expanded during this period

Schleitheim Confession

1527

First major battle of Swiss Civil War

June 1529

Second major battle of Swiss Civil War

October 1531

Chief of Antitrinitarians executed

1553

Denmark

Christian II in power

1513 - 1523

Sweden

King Gustavus Vasa in power

1523 - 1560

Diet of Vesteras

1527

Charles XII defeated Russians at the Battle of Narva

1700

Major invasion of Russia

1708

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman empire conquered Constantinople

1453

Administering Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem

1516

Battle of Gulf of Corinth

October 7 1571

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

1714 - 1792

Poland

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

Written by Nicholas Copernicus

military invasion to Europe

1683

Treaty of Carlowitz

1699