Africa project: Conflict

Apartheid

Population Registration Act

1950

The Population Regristration Act made all citizens of South Africa be registered to a specific race. The 4 races were Bantu (black/African), white, coloured (of mixed descent), and Asain (mostly Indians).

Apartheid

1950 - 1991

noun
1.
(in the Republic of South Africa) a rigid policy of segregation of the nonwhite population.
2.
any system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc.

The Group Areas Act and Bantu Homelands Act

1951

The Group Areas Act and Bantu Homelands Act forced many Bantu people to have to move to reservations or "homelands."

Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents Act (or Pass Laws Act)

1952

The Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents Act (or Pass Laws Act) made all non-whites carry what came to be known as a pass, or a booklet of legal documentation. A non-white (especially Bantus) could not enter white areas without proper documentation and reasons.

Reservation of Separate Amenities Act

1953

The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act was much like the segregation in America at the same time, how black citizens had to use different bathrooms and sit in the back of the bus. There were even parks and entire restaurants made only for Bantus.

Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act

1953

Made protesting by Bantus illegal.

Sharpville Protest

1960

The protests in Sharpville led to the South African government to call a state of emergency that lasted 156 days. In the end the police had killed 69 people and injured 187.

Nelson Mandela in Jail

1964 - 1991

Nelson Mandela was put in prison to stop his protesting of apartheid, but because he was put in prison he became an even larger symbol of anti-apartheid protest.

Bantu Homelands Citizens Act

1970

The Bantu Homelands Citizens Act stripped all Bantus of their South African citizenship and made them become citizens of their own homelands, which became self-governed.

The Soweto Uprising

1976

People in Soweto protest by locking arms together, the police stops the protesting by shooting at the protestors. 575 people are killed, thousands are injured.

The End of Apartheid

1991

After a long time of protesting, Nelson Mandela was released from prison, President F.W. de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, and Nelson Mandela was elected president. After he was elected he started to lift the laws of apartheid to reintegrate South Africa.

Bibliography

01/28/2013

"Apartheid Timeline." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

"Negative Effects of Apartheid." Negative Effects of Apartheid. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

"Nelson Mandelas." Nelson Mandela Apartheid. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

"Oral History Education." Oral History Education RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

"The History of Apartheid in South Africa." The History of Apartheid in South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

"Untitled Document." Untitled Document. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

Sudanese Civil War

Revolt against the Egyptian Administration

January 1 1881 - December 30 1881

Sudan was under the joint rule of the British and Egyptians

1899 - 1955

Sudan is independent

1956

General Abboud leads a military coup which go against the civilian government

1958

elected in the beginning of the year.

Civil war begins in the south

1962

The “October Revolution” gets rid of Abbud and an Islamist led Government begins

1964

Jaafar Numeiri leads the military coup in the “May Revolution”.

1969

The Sudan Communist Party leaders killed the newly formed coup against Numeiry

1971

The rule of Addis Ababa there is a peace treaty between the government and

1972

Anya Nya, which the south begins to become a self-governing area

Oil is found in southern Sudan

1978

President Numeiri introduces the Sharia Islamic Law

1983

Numayri is disposed of and a Transitional Military Council is

1985

in charge of the country

Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes prime minister after the Coalition Government

1986

is formed after the general elections

The coalition drafts a cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not used

1988

The military coup is taken over by the National Salvation Revolution

1989

After Omar Bashir is appointed president the Revolution Command

1993

Council dissolves.

After an attempt to assassinate Egyptian President Mubarak,

1995

he accuses Sudan with being involved with the attempt

US sends a missile at a plant that may contain chemical weapons

1998

and a new constitution is passed

President Bashir gets rid of the National Assembly and ends up declaring

1999

a state of emergency after a power struggle with Hassan al-Turabi, the parliamentary speaker and sudan begins to export oil

Bashir meets the leaders of the NDA ( National Democratic Alliance)

2000

for the first time

The Popular National Congress signs memorandum of understanding

2001

with the SPLM.

The Government and SPLM/SPLA sign a ceasefire agreement

2002

which needs to be renewed in 2005

The agreement is renewed.

2005

Libyan Conflict

Muammar Gaddafi Is Born

June 7, 1942 - June 8, 1942

Muammar Gaddafi was born in a small town in a western desert of Libya.

Muammar Gaddafi's Rule

September 1, 1969 - October 20, 2011

Gaddafi ruled for 42 years. In that time he put in place a new type of government where he had absolute power, attacked neighboring countries, tried to form political mergers with other countries, started a civil war, and gained world publicity for his actions.

Muammar Gaddafi Comes To Power

September 1 1969 - September 2 1969

Gaddafi comes to power and and puts his "Jamahiriya" government into effect. This government gave most law making power to a council, but gave Gaddafi himself almost absolute power.

Green Book Is Published

1975 - 1976

The Green Book explains "Jamahiriya". This is a form of government that he created that gave most of the voting power into a sort of "high council", of which he was the leader. In that position, Gaddafi had absolute power over everything in the country. He then went on and told the people of Libya that it was a special government that was for the people and fair, when in reality it wan't.

Political Merger With Chad

December 1980 - January 1981

In the '80's, Libya's economy was falling because its oil revenue went way down. To try to address this, Gaddafi re-invaded Chad. After this he suggested that they create a political merger. This idea was greatly discouraged. So much that it actually got 9 African States to cut relations with Libya, and a meeting was cancelled that would have promoted him to chairmanship. The world didn't approve of this behavior.

Libya's Attempt To Overthrow Sudanese Government

February 1, 1983 - February 28, 1983

Intelligence reports alleged Libya's government was about to overthrow Sudan's Government. The US gets involved and sends aircraft to Egypt just to be safe.

Terrorist Attacks In Airports (Rome and Vienna)

December 27, 1985 - January 7, 1986

US links terrorist attacks on airports in Rome and Vienna to the Libyan Government. Because of this, Ronald Reagan cuts all commercial and economic ties with Libya.

Protests In Benghazi

February 1, 2011 - February 28, 2011

Human rights protesters start violence in a protest. Gaddafi's forces uses aircraft to fight back the protesters after the violence spreads throughout the country.

No Fly Zone

March 1, 2011 - March 30, 2011

The UN issues a no fly zone of Libya to protect the civilians from air attacks. The rebels use this time to capture territory, but forced to retreat by Gaddafi's forces.

Rebels Surround Gaddafi

August 1, 2011 - August 31, 2011

Rebels get word that Gaddafi is hiding in a "fortress compound" in the town of Tripoli. As the rebels are making a plan, Gaddafi and his family go into hiding.

Death Of Muammar Gaddafi

October 19, 2011 - October 20, 2011

In the midst of battle, Gaddafi is captured by rebels and killed by a bayonet wound.

Bibliography

January 29, 2013 - January 30, 2013

"Libyan Civil War." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.

"Libya Profile." BBC News. BBC, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.

"Libya Profile." BBC News. BBC, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.

"Timeline: Col. Muammar El-Qaddafi." The New York Times. The New York Times, 24 Feb. 2011. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.