France vs. Germany (Germany defeat France in the Franco-Prussian War. France wants Alsace and Lorraine)
Pan-Slavism- Russia (duty to lead and defend all Slavs. Support Serbia to become a proud young nation. South Slav State)
Balkan States- attacked Turkey and took large areas of land from Turkish control. "powder keg of Europe"
It included Italy, germany, and Austria-Hungary
France and Britain fromed an alliance in 1893.
France and Britain signed an entente in 1904
Later known as the Allies.
Entente- nonbinding agreement to follow common policies
Britain-Germany (Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth)
France-Germany (Competition for colonies)
Britain vs. Germany
Germany vs. Russia
German's Schlieffen Plan Fails:
-Both sides dig trenches: British and French vs. Russia
Deadlock or Stalemate: neither side able to defeat the other
British India and French West Africa fought on European battlefields.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand-Britain's aid
Mixed feelings about serving.
Expected that service would be a step toward citizen ship or independence.
Women took over men's jobs and kept national economies going.
War industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies
This helped them finally win the right to vote.
A serbian terrorist group: the Black Hand
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria(heir of Austrian emperor) and wife killed.
Servian nationalists viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors
Germany--Austria "blank check" (promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost)
Austria -> Servia ultimatum-final set of demands (some refused by serbs)
July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia
-Assassination in Sarajevo-Balkan Powder Keg
-Schlieffen Plan-Brigs britain to war
Long term causes of WWI:
-Nationalism-germany, france, pan-slavism
-Militarism-arms build up/ glorifying military
-defeat france quickly by going through neutral belgium
-then go to russia who mobilize slowly
Britain declares war on Germany as an ally of Belgium
Russians poorly equipped to fight a modern war
Ottoman empire desired ally because of its strategic location.
Cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the DARDANELLES- strait connecting Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
Deport the entire Armenian population.
Armenians fled to other countries
Arab nationalists declared a revolt against Ottoman rule
Ottoman empire lost a lot of territory to the Arabs (Baghdad)
-Move across no man's land
-Broke down often
-not many fights in the air
-observe enemy troop movement
-German U-boats (sink merchant trips and vital supplies to Britain)
-Allies created Convoys (groups of merchant ships protected by warships)
Germany and then Allies
Blinded, chocked, agonizing burns and blisters
Uncertain weapon (could backfire)
Declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
Secret treaty- give Italy some Austrian ruled lands
German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania
1200 passengers were killed
American in response threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany
Britain instituted conscription in 1916.
Conscription- "the draft" which required all young men to be ready for military or other service
Germany- forced civilian labor, raised taxes, borrowed huge amounts of money
propaganda- spreading ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause.
motivate military mobilization
Urged citizens to loan money to the government
British and French press circulated tales of atrocities
Lusitania posters with the word ENLIST
Total war- channeling of a nation's entire resources into the war effort
British Blockade of Germany- contraband(military supplies), food, clothing not able to enter Germany
British intercepted a message from German foreign minister to the ambassador in Mexico.
Germany would help Mexico
Mexican support against United States.
2nd reason that America joined the war
Germany desperate to break the stalemate resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
One reason why America joined to war effort
Revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy
Wilson declared war on Germany
They were a morale boost and financial aid to the Allied troops
Treaty that ended Russian participation in World War I
Germany could now focus on the Western Front
a list of Wilson's terms for resolving this and future wars.
Freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reductions of arms, and an end to secret treaties
German government sought an armistice (agreement to end fighting)
Self Determination in Eastern Europe: Poland independent, Baltic States independent, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia
Mandate System-Peace only to parts of Europe, Madates (territories Western Powers)
League of Nations- Hope, 40 nations, US never join to avoid foreign wars
British David Lloyd George
Italy Vittorio Orlando
America Woodrow Wilson
France Georges Clemenceau
"peace without victory"
Italy wanted to get former Austro-Hungarian lands
Collective security- a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all.
Forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war
$30 billion or $2.7 trillion today
Aimed at weakening Germany
Limit German military
German colonies to return to Germany or Austria
Germans had no choice but to sign it
Poison the international climate for 20 years