World War I

Before and During World War I

Nationalism

1871 - 1914

France vs. Germany (Germany defeat France in the Franco-Prussian War. France wants Alsace and Lorraine)
Pan-Slavism- Russia (duty to lead and defend all Slavs. Support Serbia to become a proud young nation. South Slav State)
Balkan States- attacked Turkey and took large areas of land from Turkish control. "powder keg of Europe"

Triple Alliance

1882 - 1914

It included Italy, germany, and Austria-Hungary

Triple Entente

1893 - 1918

France and Britain fromed an alliance in 1893.
France and Britain signed an entente in 1904
Later known as the Allies.
Entente- nonbinding agreement to follow common policies

Competition

1905 - 1914

Overseas Rivalries:
Britain-Germany (Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth)
France-Germany (Competition for colonies)
Economic Rivalries:
Britain vs. Germany
Germany vs. Russia

Stalemate on the Western Front

1914 - 1918

German's Schlieffen Plan Fails:
-Both sides dig trenches: British and French vs. Russia

Deadlock or Stalemate: neither side able to defeat the other

War and the Colonies

1914 - 1918

British India and French West Africa fought on European battlefields.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand-Britain's aid
Mixed feelings about serving.
Expected that service would be a step toward citizen ship or independence.

Women Join the War Effort

1914 - 1918

Women took over men's jobs and kept national economies going.
War industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies
Nurses
This helped them finally win the right to vote.

Assasination in Sarajevo

June 28, 1914

A serbian terrorist group: the Black Hand
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria(heir of Austrian emperor) and wife killed.
Servian nationalists viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors

Austria Strikes Back

June 28,1914 - July 28, 1914

Germany--Austria "blank check" (promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost)
Austria -> Servia ultimatum-final set of demands (some refused by serbs)
July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia

World War I

July 1914 - November 1918

Immediate Causes:
-Assassination in Sarajevo-Balkan Powder Keg
-Schlieffen Plan-Brigs britain to war

Long term causes of WWI:
-Rivalries/competition/Alliances
-Nationalism-germany, france, pan-slavism
-Militarism-arms build up/ glorifying military
-Imperialism-colonies

Germany Invades Belgium

August 1914

Italy Neutral
Schlieffen Plan:
-defeat france quickly by going through neutral belgium
-then go to russia who mobilize slowly
Britain declares war on Germany as an ally of Belgium

Russian Losses on the Eastern Front

August 1914

Russians defeat@Tannenberg
Russians poorly equipped to fight a modern war

Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers

October 1914

Ottoman empire desired ally because of its strategic location.
Cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the DARDANELLES- strait connecting Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
Deport the entire Armenian population.
Armenians fled to other countries
Arab nationalists declared a revolt against Ottoman rule
Ottoman empire lost a lot of territory to the Arabs (Baghdad)

Invention of Tanks, Submarines, and Airplanes

1915 - 1916

Tanks:
-Move across no man's land
-Broke down often
Airplanes:
-"flying aces"
-not many fights in the air
-observe enemy troop movement
Submarines:
-German U-boats (sink merchant trips and vital supplies to Britain)
-Allies created Convoys (groups of merchant ships protected by warships)

Poison Gas

1915

Germany and then Allies
Blinded, chocked, agonizing burns and blisters
Uncertain weapon (could backfire)

Italy joins the Allies

1915

Declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
Secret treaty- give Italy some Austrian ruled lands

Lusitania

May 1915

German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania
1200 passengers were killed
128 americans
American in response threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany

Economies Committed to War Production

1916 - 1918

Britain instituted conscription in 1916.
Conscription- "the draft" which required all young men to be ready for military or other service
Germany- forced civilian labor, raised taxes, borrowed huge amounts of money

Propaganda war

1916 - 1918

propaganda- spreading ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause.
motivate military mobilization
Urged citizens to loan money to the government
British and French press circulated tales of atrocities
Lusitania posters with the word ENLIST

Waging Total War

1917 - 1918

All nations.
Total war- channeling of a nation's entire resources into the war effort

Economic Warfare

1917 - 1918

British Blockade of Germany- contraband(military supplies), food, clothing not able to enter Germany

Zimmermann note

1917

British intercepted a message from German foreign minister to the ambassador in Mexico.
Germany would help Mexico
Mexican support against United States.
2nd reason that America joined the war

Germany Resume Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

February 1, 1917

Germany desperate to break the stalemate resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
One reason why America joined to war effort

Bread riots in St. Petersburg

March 1917

Revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy

Declares War

April 1917

Wilson declared war on Germany
They were a morale boost and financial aid to the Allied troops

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1918

Treaty that ended Russian participation in World War I
Germany could now focus on the Western Front

Fourteen Points

January 1918

a list of Wilson's terms for resolving this and future wars.
Freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reductions of arms, and an end to secret treaties

Victory at Last

November 11, 1918

German government sought an armistice (agreement to end fighting)
Austria-Hungary collapse.

Outcome of Peace Settlements

1919

Self Determination in Eastern Europe: Poland independent, Baltic States independent, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia
Mandate System-Peace only to parts of Europe, Madates (territories Western Powers)
League of Nations- Hope, 40 nations, US never join to avoid foreign wars

Paris Peace Conference

1919

British David Lloyd George
Italy Vittorio Orlando
America Woodrow Wilson
France Georges Clemenceau

"peace without victory"
weaken Germany
Italy wanted to get former Austro-Hungarian lands
Collective security- a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all.

Treaty of Versailles

June 1919

Forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war
$30 billion or $2.7 trillion today
Aimed at weakening Germany
Limit German military
German colonies to return to Germany or Austria
Germans had no choice but to sign it
Poison the international climate for 20 years