History Midterm

The World and Europe II

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Introduced Heliocentrism

Bacon and Descartes

1561 - 1650

together, changed the way we approach science.
bacon advocated the empirical method of inductive reasoning, Descartes advocated deductive reasoning (“i think therefore i am,” everything follows from that).
together, their ideas form the scientific method.

Galileo

1564 - 1642

invents telescope, discovers imperfections in the moon
rocked the foundation of the copernican universe
discovers property of inertia
convicted by the church, but remains defiant ("and yet it moves")
simplified copernican theories and made them understandable

Kepler

1571 - 1630

created planetary laws of motion - orbits are elliptical

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

pessimistic, thought everyone had an agenda towards power
3 causes of quarrel: competition, diffidence, glory
secular (!!!)
believed that people needed a social contract and absolute leader

John Locke

1632 - 1704

believed people were inherently good
"natural rights of life, liberty, property"
believed property was good - voters should be property owners

Newton

1642 - 1727

invents calculus, three laws of motion, optics, light waves, gravity
writes and publishes "principia"

Hobbes publishes "Leviathan"

1651

"Principia" published by Newton

1687

Montesquieu

1689 - 1755

wrote "Spirit of the Law"
invented bicameral system - separation of powers, checks and balances

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

completely embodied the enlightenment movement
very anti-religious (particularly towards jesuits, whom he had studied under as a child)
wrote 90+ works, including greatest satire - Candide, about the French government’s corrupt bureaucracy

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

the bomb-thrower of the enlightenment
believed that property was the root of all evil (suck it, locke)
“man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.”
prototype of socialism - believed that government only exists to protect property (and is therefore inherently evil)
wants france to be governed by the “general will” and with a “civic religion”

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

economic philosopher, invented the idea of laissez-faire capitalism and coined the term “free market”. (Government should not intervene in market)

Beccaria

1738 - 1794

concerned with law, criminal justice
invented the idea of the punishment fitting the crime

"Spirit of the Law" published anonymously by Montesquieu

1748

Diderot publishes "Encyclopedia"

1751 - 1772

collection of all arts, trades, and sciences
uses the newly-developed scientific method (see bacon & descartes)
disproves a lot of well-established common knowledge.

"Candide" published by Voltaire

January 1759

satired french bureaucracy - corrupt and unproductive

England (Stuart)

Spanish Armada

1588

because England had been funding Dutch revolt from Spain
Philip II sends entire Spanish fleet to England
english ships were smaller, faster, took down all Spanish ships

Reign of James I

1603 - 1625

converts from Calvinism to Anglicanism
translates Bible into King James Bible - accessible to everyone
makes Sundays religiously observant
allows religious groups to move to Americas

Death of Queen Elizabeth

1603

childless, throne passed to James I

Reign of Charles I

1625 - 1649

began war with Spain, ends it over shared anti-Catholic feels
allows "Petition of Right" to be created, makes him consult with parliament before making decisions/raising money - prevents him from disbanding parliament
tries to rule through absolutism - "The Thorough Years"
creates tension between brits and scots
executed during English Civil War

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

Long wink wink Parliament
Charles I forced to recall Parliament after Scots advanced into Northern England
led by Gentry and Puritans who flexed their muscle wink wink in terms of social/economic policies
created a cleavage wink wink in Parliament (independents, moderate puritans, anglicans, levellers)

English Civil War

1642 - 3 September 1651

Parliament and Cromwell vs Charles I (Roundheads/New Model Army vs Cavaliers)
starts because Charles disbands Parliament against Petition of Right and tries to raise extra taxes
Parliament wins, Charles I executed

Pride's Purge

6 December 1648

Cromwell gets rid of all moderate members in Parliament
leaves behind "Rump Parliament"

Protectorate (Cromwell)

1653 - 1659

also known as the Commonwealth
Cromwell rules as a dictator "Lord Protector"
abolishes monarchy, house of lords, anglican church
expels moderates from parliament (Rump), then disbands it altogether
becomes harsh and hated
conquers Ireland and scotland, Great Britain is formed

Reign of Charles II

1660 - 1685

elected after Cromwell's death, try and restore power of monarchy
england gains NYC from war with Dutch
Navigation Acts tax colonists
Test Act makes all British officeholders be Anglican
converts to Catholicism on deathbed

Reign of James II

1685 - 1688

tries to repeal Test Act
tried to institute "Free Worship" to rule absolutely
overthrown by Parliament in Glorious Revolution

Glorious Revolution

1688

led by Parliament to overthrow James II
James' wife had had a catholic heir - needed to be overthrown

English Bill of Rights

1689

Cosigned by William, Mary, and Parliament
England becomes a Constitutional Monarchy

Reign of William (of Orange) and Mary

1689 - 1702

spouses and first cousins - coregency over throne of england
william was already leader of Netherlands
offered throne by Parliament to replace James II
help create Bill of Rights - created a constitutional monarchy
mary dies 1694, william rules alone until 1702 death

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1830

note: dates are approximate

focus on steam power
coal, cotton
cottage industry -> factories
people losing jobs because of new efficiency, move to cities
entrepreneurship
railroads!

Peterloo Massacre

16 August 1819

English cavalry charged into a crowd of 60-80,000 gathered at a meeting to demand the reform of parliamentary representation
results in the 6 Acts, restricting freedom of Speech and protecting rights of Tories

Great Reform Bill of 1832

1832

expands suffrage but still no universal male suffrage
gets rid of Rotten Boroughs, created equal districts distributing equal power
set up a series of peaceful protests in England (which was why they never had an 1841 revolution

France (Bourbon/Orleans)

Reign of Henry IV

1572 - 1610

first Bourbon!
converted to catholicism and ended the french civil war - "paris is worth a mass"
wrote the Edict of Nantes, giving Huguenots (French Protestants) religious freedom
Created Nobility of the Robe to collect taxes
elected the Duc du Sully as his economic minister:
- improved infrastructure of France
- effective tax collection
-> budget surplus, efficient treasury, new french industries

French Wars of Religion end

1598

because of Henry IV's conversion to catholicism from Protestantism
"Paris is worth a Mass"

Edict of Nantes

13 april 1598

written and signed by Henry IV
gave Huguenots (French Protestants) religious freedom
eventually revoked by Louis XIV (1685)

Reign of Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

succeeded his father at age 9, was nothing more than a figurehead for Richelieu, who:
- created intendants, loyal royal inspectors/government administrators
- responsible for french victories during 30 years war
- persecuted huguenots

Reign of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

comes to power at age 5, no more than figurehead for Mazarin
- exploits disunity among nobles for taxes/money
mazarin dies, louis comes to actual power, becomes
"The Sun King" (Le Roi du Soleil)
the model for an absolutist king - "L'état, c'est moi" (I am the State)
builds palace of Versailles
establishes parlements, regional legislative and judicial bodies
persecuted catholic heretics
revoked edict of nantes (!!!), outlawed protestantism
hires new finance minister Colbert:
- mercantilism
- fixes navy to be able to compete with the dutch/english
forges wars of aggression, make him very unpopular and he loses a ton of money

Le Fronde

1649 - 1652

peasant uprising over taxes, royal power, high concentration of wealth (nobles didn't pay taxes!)
influenced by 30 years' war

Palace of Versailles constructed

1664 - 1710

to solidify his image of power, luxury, wealth
gave him power over nobles
he could hold court at home

Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes

October 1685

leads to an exodus of protestants from france, taking out artisans/economy
increased hostility of bordering Protestant nations

Reign of Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Louis XIV's great-grandson - had outlived son and grandson
didn't get along with nobles

Reign of Louis XVI

1774 - 21 September 1792

sought to address financial crisis, convenes "assembly of notables"
forced to call Estates-General to help fix the economy
tried and executed by the National Assembly as a normal citizen

"What is the 3rd Estate?" published by Sièyes

January 1789

argued that the Third Estate constituted a complete nation, and would be better off without the "dead weight" of the other estates

Estates-General

5 May 1789 - 17 June 1789

forced to be called by Louis XVI to fix the budget crisis
convention of the 3 estates of France:
- clergy, approx. 1% of population
- nobility, approx. 4% of population
- 3rd estate, approx. THE REST OF FRANCE
3rd estate proposes a "vote by head" to make it more representative of true population of france
louis agrees, but locks the 3rd estate out of the meeting hall

National Assembly

17 June 1789 - 30 September 1791

creates a new currency to help get out of debt - assignats
confiscate church lands to get money for assignats (10% of French Land)
prohibits religious practices! - peasants are upset
inflation becomes a big problem, prices rise - sans-culottes get mad

writes Civil Constitution of Clergy
50+% of clergy refuses to sign - called nonjuring /refractory
nonjuring clergy are forced to retire
makes peasants angry b/c they’re catholic
abolishes guilds to open up free market

French Revolution Begins

17 June 1789

Tennis Court Oath

17 June 1789

the 3rd estate outwits Louis XVI by finding another room to assemble in, an indoor tennis court
they name themselves the National Assembly of France
pledge not to leave the room until they have written a constitution

Storming of the Bastille

14 July 1789

Sans-Culottes (urban workers) storm the Bastille prison
less about freeing the 14 prisoners inside, more symbolic
(also there were weapons inside)
kill the governor of the bastille and parade around paris with his head on a pike

The Great Fear

17 July 1789 - 5 August 1789

peasants roam the countryside burning chateaux (castles)
nobles are afraid of peasants, peasants are afraid of nobles
tons of nobles leave france and become known as émigrés

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

26 August 1789

the National Assembly comes through with a constitution!
people’s rights are natural and inalienable - from Locke
- Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité - Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood
limited to men only, even with women’s presence in enlightenment

sets up new government in france!
- unicameral legislature - constitutional monarchy
- gets rid of nobility-controlled parlements
- divides france into about 85 départements

Women's March on Versailles

5 October 1789

in response to Louis’ refusal to ratify the declaration
they are still hungry!!
take the king, queen, royal family to les Tuileries in Paris, essentially under house arrest

Flight to Varennes

20 June 1791

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette try to escape France as émigrés
they are recognized one day after their escape attempt, by their faces on the postage/coinery

Legislative Assembly

1 October 1791 - 19 September 1792

the national assembly has written their constitution, turns over government to the Legislative Assembly

  • 2 political parties: Jacobins (the Mountain) vs Girondins
  • Girondins are majority, want a republic

Leg. Assembly declares war on Austria and Prussia

20 April 1792

complete failure, France's forces are crushed
generals had all left as émigrés

National Convention

20 September 1792 - 26 October 1795

takes over for Legislative Assembly, more radical
controlled by Jacobin sans-culottes
universal male suffrage!
New constitution written but suspended because of threats to the nation
- INTERNAL - Peasant revolts in the Vendée (and most other départements) - want clergy and king to come back
- EXTERNAL - fighting like 9 wars against basically all Europe (except Russia)
Enlightenment reasoning run amok
- institute a new calendar, old one was too nonsensical and religiony
- new religion - cult of the supreme being
- metric system (this one actually works)
- marriages became legal institutions, not religious
could be considered totalitarianism

National Convention declares France to be a Republic

21 September 1792

monarchy is abolished, Louis and Marie are now normal citizens

First French Republic

22 September 1792 - 17 May 1804

Trial and Execution of Citizen Capet

21 January 1793

Citizen Capet was Louis XVI
he was tried and executed like any other enemy to the state, not treated specially because he used to be king

Committee of Public Safety

6 April 1793 - 22 August 1795

headed by Maximilien Robespierre

Levée en Masse

23 August 1793

France's mass conscription call: all men to war, women/children also involved in the war effort
"total war"

Reign of Terror

5 September 1793 - 28 July 1794

Committee of Public Safety's (particularly Robespierre's) attempt to weed out all internal enemies
responsible for 500,000+ executions/imprisonments


- Robespierre executes the executioner after having beheaded everyone else in France

Marie Antoinette guillotined

16 October 1793

Thermidorian Reaction

27 July 1794

Robespierre arrested, guillotined without trial, along with other members of the Committee of Public Safety. Commune of Paris abolished. End of the Reign of Terror

Closure of Jacobin Club

11 November 1794

Constitution of the Year III

22 August 1795

creates the Directory - 5-man Directory to rule France next
essentially becomes an oligarchy

The Directory

2 November 1795 - 10 November 1799

5-Man oligarchy elected into power after the National Convention
taken over by Napoleon

Battle of the Nile

1 August 1798

French fleet (under Napoleon's control) destroyed by English admiral Nelson
napoleon isolated in egypt

Coup de Brumaire

9 November 1799

end of the Directory, Consulate comes into power

The Consulate

10 November 1799 - 18 May 1804

3-man government, headed by Napoleon

Constitution of the Year VIII

December 24 1799

declares Napoleon in charge of the three-man Consulate

End of the French Revolution

24 December 1799

Constitution of the Year VIII - leadership of Napoleon established under the Consulate

Concordat of 1801

15 July 1801

signed between Napoleon and the Pope
ensured that the majority religion in France would be Catholicism
tipped the balance of church-state relations in Napoleon's favor

Napoleonic Code issued

21 March 1804

forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified

First French Empire

18 May 1804 - 11 April 1814

ruled and declared by Napoleon

Napoleon crowns himself emperor

2 December 1804

at Notre Dame Cathedral

Battle of Austerlitz

2 December 1805

Also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors
Napoleon defeats combined Russian & Austrian forces

Napoleon's Continental System

21 November 1806 - April 11, 1814

Napoleon's foreign policy
large-scale embargo against British trade
lasted until his abdication and exile

Treaties of Tilsit

July 1807

signed by Napoleon, essentially puts all of europe (except for Portugal) under his direct control

Napoleon's Russian Campaign

24 June 1812 - 14 December 1812

is a disaster, Napoleon loses 500,000 troops
Russians practiced scorched-earth policy, leaving no food for French soldiers
beginning of the end for Napoleon

Battle of Borodino

September 7, 1812

Pyrrhic Victory for Napoleon
he wins the battle, but loses so many troops that he can't win the rest of the war

Treaty of Fontainebleau exiles Napoleon to Elba

11 April 1814

treaty signed by the Allies: rulers of Austria, Prussia, Russia
after they decided that "Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe"
Elba is a tiny island off of the Tuscan coast

Reign of Louis XVIII

11 April 1814 - 16 September 1824

instituted by the Congress of Vienna to reinstate the Bourbon monarchy in France
moderate king
retained many of Napoleon's civil liberties

Napoleon's Hundred Days

20 March 1815 - 8 July 1815

really lasts 111 days
Napoleon escapes exile on Elba, raises an army
ended by Battle of Waterloo, major loss for Napoleon
he is exiled to St Helena in South Atlantic, where he dies in 1821

Battle of Waterloo

18 June 1815

loss for napoleon, he is exiled once again to a place he can't escape
Saint Helena - island in the middle of the S Atlantic
he dies there in 1821

Reign of Charles X

16 September 1824 - 2 August 1830

elected to power after death of Louis XVIII when émigrés return
curtails religious toleration, free speech, conservatizes france
flees to England in response to the July Revolution

not to be confused with Professor Charles Xavier (Professor X) from X-Men

Revolutions of 1830

1830

Belgium rebels against Holland to gain independence
Charles X seizes power in France from Louis XVIII, tries to go back to ancien régime
assembly votes against the king, charles x dismisses the chamber and makes demands aka the July Ordinances
- dissolve the new chamber, censor the press, restrict the vote, get new elections
Paris erupts in chaos (July Rebellions)
liberals/working class/students unite to fight against Charles X, become Republicans
Charles X flees (duh) and Louis-Philippe is put into power, forced to sign a new French constitution

Reign of Louis-Philippe

9 August 1830 - 24 February 1848

elected after Charles X flees, known as the Citizen King
promotes Liberal Enlightened values
creates a very bourgeois-powered state
also flees to england after alliance of convenience between Lamartine and Louis Blanc

Second Republic of France

1848 - 1852

proclaimed by Louis Blanc and Lamartine
National Workshops

Revolution of 1848

1848

liberals frustrated they can't get high governmental positions under Louis-Philippe
urban workers frustrated because of high food prices and unemployment
liberals start holding political banquets to attract workers on their side
Guizot (Louis' advisor) bans the banquets
violence and riots break out the next day, king flees to england
Liberals form the Second Republic
June Days
Louis Napoleon elected

Revolutions of 1848

1848

upper middle class wants power in gov't, civil liberties, religious tolerance, laissez-faire economy
peasants and urban poor have famines and unemployment
food prices skyrocket, decrease in demand for industrial goods
nationalism is important
general results:
- leaders deposed within a year, all flee to england
- middle and lower class no longer united by a common cause
- creates modern authoritarian governments
still believe there is need for strong authority, but only some people fit to rule
diving point from romanticism to realism

June Days

23 June 1848 - 26 June 1848

worker uprising, in response to plans to close National Workshops

Reign of (Louis-)Napoleon III

10 December 1848 - 4 September 1870

elected into power
issues the 2nd empire of France
becomes a bourgeois king

Second French Empire

1852 - 1870

Third French Republic Established

1870

formed after loss in Franco-Prussian War and Napoleon III's exile
became very corrupt, controversy over whether a new monarch would come into power
- couldn't decide on a monarch, remained a republic

Franco-Prussian War

19 July 1870 - 10 May 1871

Called by France in response to Ems Dispatch
decisive Prussian victory
Napoleon III is captured, ushers in the beginning of the Third French Republic
City of Paris forms the Paris Commune
France givs Germans Alsace and Lorraine as indemnity, rallying cry for the next 40 years

Paris Commune

March 18, 1871 - May 28, 1871

alternative temporary government that doesn't want to surrender to the Germans after they beat the French during the Franco-Prussian war

Dreyfus Affair

1894 - 1906

Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish soldier in the French Army, accused of leaking secrets to the Germans after Franco-Prussian War
trial was over quickly, maybe or maybe not completely legally, he was found guilty, partially because of religion
eventually found innocent and framed, military had to reopen the case against their will, took many many years

represented the deep ideological rift within France and deep anti-Semitism within French right-wing political developments
also indirectly sprouts Zionism

Prussia/Germany (Hohenzollern)

Defenestration of Prague

1618

HRE sends ambassadors to Protestant Bohemia, they are pushed out 2nd floor windows into manure piles

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

bloodiest War in Euro History
protestants vs catholics in HRE
started by Defenestration of Prague
ended by Peace of Westphalia

Rule of Frederick-William the Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Led Brandenburg-Prussia
makes a deal with Junkers (nobility) that he will protect them if they can exploit peasants
gains new territories in 30 years war
legacy of military values

Peace of Westphalia

1648

added Calvinism to HRE
confirmed individual princes' power to tax

Rule of Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786

used father's military to increase Prussian territory/resources
made state more militaristic
practiced Enlightened Absolutism
codified laws, abolished torture, promoted agricultural development
brought new industry to Prussia

Declaration of Pillnitz issued

27 August 1791

Leopold II of Austria (also Holy Roman Emperor, though he was neither holy nor Roman) and Fredrick-William II of Prussia (Marie Antoinette's brother) issue the Declaration of Pillnitz, stating that they would intervene if any harm came to the Royal Family

Brunswick Manifesto

25 July 1792

Duke of Brunswick warns that if the royal family is harmed, an "exemplary and eternally memorable revenge" will follow

Carlsbad Decrees

20 September 1819

written by Metternich
banned nationalist fraternities ("Burschenschaften"), removed liberal university professors, and expanded the censorship of the press

Revolution of 1848

1848

Germans want to unite with Prussia, but king Frederick IV is crazy
people of Prussia are protesting, so they are grated constitution
- king gets power over cabinet and military
- universal male suffrage
in the Frankfurt Assembly, people choose Kleindeutsch (not including austria), king refuses, doesn't want the crown from the gutter
- movement towards free speech

Rule of Kaiser Wilhelm (William I)

2 January 1861 - 9 March 1888

elects bismarck to power
establishes Frankfurt Assembly
involved in Franco-Prussian war

Danish War

1 February 1864 - 30 October 1864

Bismarck manipulates Austria into helping him take over Schleswig and Holstein (German-speaking states within Denmark)
Austria takes control of Holstein, Prussia takes control of Schleswig
Bismarck has his troops in Holstein start to disobey Austrians, sparks Austro-Prussian War, which he already knew he could win

Austro-Prussian War

14 June 1866 - 23 August 1866

Prussians won easily. Signified Austrian weakness and Hapsburg vulnerability
Austrians realize they need to please Hungarians since they had lost support from Russia
- leads to formation of Austria-Hungary

Ems Dispatch

July 1870

telegraph from the Prussian King to Bismarck, which Bismarck doctored and released to the public, to make it seem like an insult against France
France responds by calling the Austro-Prussian War

Franco-Prussian War

19 July 1870 - 10 May 1871

Called by France in response to Ems Dispatch
decisive Prussian victory
Prussia uses nationalism created by the war to unite all the German Confederate states to the Second Reich of Germany.
Germany gains Alsace and Lorraine as indemnity from France

Chancellorship of Otto von Bismarck

21 March 1871 - 20 March 1890

1st Chancellor of the German Empire
elected to help William I
above all, he is a Junker - focused on increasing power of the aristocracy before country
advocates Realpolitik - harsh realism and pessimism in politics
convinces Austria to ally with the Prussians, gains control of Schleswig-Holstein

after his rise to power, he wanted to continue to stabilize/unify the new German state under Prussia
grants universal male suffrage, but they can't vote for anything important
makes it seem like the poeple have the power, when really it is all centralized to him
starts Kulturkampf - war for German civilization against the Church

Austria (Hapsburg)

Rule of Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

first female Hapsburg leader
in power because of the Pragmatic Sanction by her father

Congress of Vienna

September 1814

Involved:
- England (Castlereigh)
- France (Talleyrand)
- Russia (Czar Alex I)
- Austria (Metternich)
- Prussia (Hardenberg)
goals were to establish legitimacy of the conservative order
wanted to assure that France would not come out victorious (after Napoleon)
Outcomes:
- Buffer States! Belgium, Rhineland, etc.
- England gets South Africa
- Austria gets to control confederation of the Rhine (which becomes German Confederation), Poland, and Saxony
- Quadruple Alliance is formed: England, Russia, Austria, Prussia
- Holy Alliance: Russia, Austria, England, France - all Christian (not very effective)

Chancellorship of Metternich

25 May 1821 - 13 March 1848

headed the power scheme within the Congress of Vienna
allows French to become integrated within congress of Vienna
severely opposes the Burschenschaften in Germany
- student fraternities with liberal agendas
creates Carlsbad Decrees

Revolution of 1848

1848

Budapest rebels against austria and vienna and joins Hungarians
King Ferdinand grants the people a constitution, frees serfs, flees with Metternich

Austro-Prussian War

14 June 1866 - 23 August 1866

Prussians won easily. Signified Austrian weakness and Hapsburg vulnerability
Austrians realize they need to please Hungarians since they had lost support from Russia
– leads to formation of Austria-Hungary

Ausgleich: Austria-Hungary formed

1867

The Dual Monarchy of Austria and Hungary
Hapsburgs were still significant rulers, but Hungary now had power
other nationalities and ethnicities grew upset, wanting to gain power as well

Eastern/Central Europe

Great Northern War

February 1700 - August 1721

Russia attacks both Ottomans and Swedes in search for a warm-water port
succeeds against the Swedes, treaty of Nystad allows him to take land on the Baltic Sea (where he builds St Petersburg)

Treaty of Nystad

10 September 1721

ends the Great Northern War, Peter the great begins construction of St Petersburg

Russia (Romanov)

Rule of Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

tried to make Russia more Westernized
moved the capital west to St Petersburg
tried to modernize nobility of Russia
increased serfdom and peasants in slave work
very very aggressive and harsh ruler
creates the Table of Ranks - attempt to make Russia a meritocracy

Rule of Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

powerful, efficient Enlightened Absolutist
made reforms in government, society, economy
fought with Ottomans and Poles
had to fight off Pugachev's rebellion

Rule of Alexander I

March 1801 - December 1825

involved with Polis-Saxony Crisis

Rule of Nicholas I

1 December 1825 - 2 March 1855

fights off Decembrist Revolt
Nicholas' Model: Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationalism
- Czar in charge of Russian Orthodox Church
Russification: imposed Russian language on commoners

Decembrist Revolt

26 December 1825

Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne

not to be confused with the legendary folk rock band from Portland

Crimean War

October 1853 - February 1856

Russia vs. Ottoman Empire over the Ottoman-controlled Crimean Peninsula
French and English side with Ottomans to not let Russia get too much power
Piedmont-Sardinia sides with Ottomans to show off to Europe
Russia loses, has to sign 3rd Treaty of Paris
- Russia gives up the Balkans, Palestine, and must acknowledge that the Black Sea is open to everyone else

Rule of Alexander II

2 March 1855 - 13 March 1881

"The Czar Liberator" -> "The Czar Oppressor"
emancipates the serfs!, liberates some russians
organizes freed serfs into communes called "Mirs"
creates the Zemstva - councils to help emancipated serfs

Alex II Emancipates the Serfs

1861

Italy

Revolution of 1848

1848

Italians want unification
need someone to lead Metternich's fallen-apart governments
- Pope refuses because he is too catholic, they want liberal system
italians besiege rome to force pope to rule, France has to intervene to rescue him
- they want Nap III to increase popularity by saving the pope, fear a united Italy

Italian Unification

1850 - 1871
  • Mazzini - Italian idealist head of Republic of Rome, leader of nationalist group in Piedmont-Sardinia. wanted a secular state
  • Cavour - Victor Emmanuel II's finance minister, sends forces to Ottoman's side during Crimean War. wanted to modernize economy of Italy.
  • Garibaldi - romantic republican nationalist - led a peasant group called the "Red Shirts". unifies from sicily northwards. yields to allow Victor Emmanuel II to take the throne

Cavour becomes President of Council of Ministers

1852

Victor Emmanuel takes throne as King of Italy

February 18, 1860

Official Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy

March 17, 1861

Capital moved to recently-annexed Rome

June 1871

Spain

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Spanish King dies, leaves inheritance to Louis XIV's grandson
Louis sends troops into Spanish Netherlands
europe forms alliance to prevent spain-france from becoming a thing
louis loses bad
settled by peace of Utrecht
- France loses land in america, england gets gibraltar
- spanish netherlands go to austria

19th Century Thinkers

Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

gov't needed to empower the propertyless and disenfranchised
they could vote for people to back high taxes

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834

plight of the peasants was their own fault - government shouldn't intervene, it will only promote their laziness
population increases geometrically, food increases arithmetically
- people will eventually outnumber food supply, will die off

Robert Owen

14 May 1771 - 17 November 1858

Utopian Socialism (See Fourier)
created New Lanark and New Harmony - everyone worked together and equally, but turned out not to be feasible

Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

invented Utopian Socialism - harmony of humankind was possible
- to each according to their need, for each acc'ding to their ability
created communal apartment complexes based on mutual benefit

NOT to be confused with joseph Fourier of the Fourier Transform

David Ricardo

1772 - 1823

same pessimistic outlook as malthus
Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages: if you lift the poor's wages, they will gain confidence and have more children. After 13 years, worker surplus, society will need to re-lower wages.

New Lanark Founded

1786

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

scientist, proposed the idea of evolution/natural selection
- upset pretty much everyone, religious beliefs shattered
theories supposedly justified why te rich were rich and the poor poor.

Louis Blanc

1811 - 1882

led the Social Working Class in France during Louis-Philippe's reign
with Lamartine (bourgeoisie leader), formed an alliance to improve economy
push Louis-Philippe out of power and form the Second Republic of France
forms National Workshops to benefit working class
gives working class the right to vote
- leads to June Days, where bourgeoisie put down working class
ends up fleeing to england (wtf why are all these guys fleeing to england)

New Harmony Founded

1814

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Scientific Socialism (COMMUNISM)
vehemently anti-religion ("the opiate of the masses")
wrote the Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital with Engels
believed in the abolition of all private property (Rousseau)
came up with an equation to show there would be a proletariat revolution against the bourgeoisie (using Hegel's Dialectic)
economic competition was what drove forward competition
- all of history is a history of class struggle
believed in internationalism, but thought the world could never come together because of religious differences
ends up influencing Hitler, Stalin, etc

Theodor Herzl

1860 - 1904

assimilated Jewish Journalist
sent to France to cover Dreyfus Affair
cane to the conclusion that Jews needed their own state for their own safety
founded Zionist movement