Sophies World Timeline

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Socrates

469 bc - 399 bc

As represented in the writings of his disciple Plato, he engaged in dialogue with others in an attempt to reach understanding and ethical concepts by exposing and dispelling error (the Socratic method). Charged with introducing strange gods and corrupting the young, he committed suicide as required. Faith and human reason. I know that I know nothing.

Plato

427 bc - 347 bc

A disciple of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he founded the Academy in Athens. His theory of “ideas” or “forms” contrasts abstract entities or universals with their objects or particulars in the material world. His philosophical writings are presented in the form of dialogues, and his political theories appear in the Republic

Diogenis Cynic

412 bc - 323 bc

a member of a group of ancient Greek philosophers who advocated the doctrine that virtue is the only good and that the essence of virtue is self-control

Aristotle

384 bc - 322 bc

Categorized nature, formal cause and final cause.

Descates

1596 ad - 1650 ad

Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am. He concluded that everything was open to doubt except conscious experience and existence as a necessary condition of this. Rationalist

Spinoza

1632 ad - 1677 ad

God is not a puppeteer
God or nature” as a single infinite substance, with mind and matter being two incommensurable ways of conceiving the one reality

John Locke

1632 ad - 1704 ad

Tabula Rasa (blank slate) revolutionary thinker. Life, liberty, property. Influenced founding fathers

Isaac Newton

1642 ad - 1726 ad

English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion

Berkely

1685 ad - 1753 ad

We only exist in the mind of god.

Hume

1711 - 1776

Complex idea, treatise or human nature.

Hegel

1770 ad - 1831 ad

Dialectic process, he described the three-stage process of dialectical reasoning, on which Marx based his theory of dialectical materialism

John Stuart

1806 ad - 1873 ad

Influenced by John Locke. Sexes. English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism.

Darwin

1809 - 1882

English natural historian and geologist; a proponent of the theory of evolution by natural selection

Kierkregaard

1813 ad - 1855 ad

A founder of existentialism, he affirmed the importance of individual experience and choice and believed that one could know God only through a “leap of faith,” not through doctrine

Marx

1818 ad - 1883 ad

founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto

Kant

1824 AD - 1904 ad

Idealist. countered Hume's skeptical empiricism by arguing that any affirmation or denial regarding the ultimate nature of reality (“noumenon”) makes no sense. His Critique of Practical Reason (1788) affirms the existence of an absolute moral law—the categorical imperative

Freud

1856 - 1939

Sex. Psychoanalytic theory

John Sarte

1904 ad - 1984 ad

French philosopher, novelist, playwright, and critic. A leading existentialist, he dealt with the nature of human life and the structures of consciousness. He refused the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964