As represented in the writings of his disciple Plato, he engaged in dialogue with others in an attempt to reach understanding and ethical concepts by exposing and dispelling error (the Socratic method). Charged with introducing strange gods and corrupting the young, he committed suicide as required. Faith and human reason. I know that I know nothing.
427 bc - 347 bc
A disciple of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he founded the Academy in Athens. His theory of “ideas” or “forms” contrasts abstract entities or universals with their objects or particulars in the material world. His philosophical writings are presented in the form of dialogues, and his political theories appear in the Republic
412 bc - 323 bc
a member of a group of ancient Greek philosophers who advocated the doctrine that virtue is the only good and that the essence of virtue is self-control
384 bc - 322 bc
Categorized nature, formal cause and final cause.
1596 ad - 1650 ad
Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am. He concluded that everything was open to doubt except conscious experience and existence as a necessary condition of this. Rationalist
1632 ad - 1704 ad
Tabula Rasa (blank slate) revolutionary thinker. Life, liberty, property. Influenced founding fathers
1632 ad - 1677 ad
God is not a puppeteer
God or nature” as a single infinite substance, with mind and matter being two incommensurable ways of conceiving the one reality
1642 ad - 1726 ad
English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
1685 ad - 1753 ad
We only exist in the mind of god.
1711 - 1776
Complex idea, treatise or human nature.
1770 ad - 1831 ad
Dialectic process, he described the three-stage process of dialectical reasoning, on which Marx based his theory of dialectical materialism
1806 ad - 1873 ad
Influenced by John Locke. Sexes. English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism.
1809 - 1882
English natural historian and geologist; a proponent of the theory of evolution by natural selection
1813 ad - 1855 ad
A founder of existentialism, he affirmed the importance of individual experience and choice and believed that one could know God only through a “leap of faith,” not through doctrine
1818 ad - 1883 ad
founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto
1824 AD - 1904 ad
Idealist. countered Hume's skeptical empiricism by arguing that any affirmation or denial regarding the ultimate nature of reality (“noumenon”) makes no sense. His Critique of Practical Reason (1788) affirms the existence of an absolute moral law—the categorical imperative
1856 - 1939
Sex. Psychoanalytic theory
1904 ad - 1984 ad
French philosopher, novelist, playwright, and critic. A leading existentialist, he dealt with the nature of human life and the structures of consciousness. He refused the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964