As represented in the writings of his disciple Plato, he engaged in dialogue with others in an attempt to reach understanding and ethical concepts by exposing and dispelling error (the Socratic method). Charged with introducing strange gods and corrupting the young, he committed suicide as required. Faith and human reason. I know that I know nothing.
A disciple of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, he founded the Academy in Athens. His theory of “ideas” or “forms” contrasts abstract entities or universals with their objects or particulars in the material world. His philosophical writings are presented in the form of dialogues, and his political theories appear in the Republic
a member of a group of ancient Greek philosophers who advocated the doctrine that virtue is the only good and that the essence of virtue is self-control
Categorized nature, formal cause and final cause.
Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am. He concluded that everything was open to doubt except conscious experience and existence as a necessary condition of this. Rationalist
God is not a puppeteer
God or nature” as a single infinite substance, with mind and matter being two incommensurable ways of conceiving the one reality
Tabula Rasa (blank slate) revolutionary thinker. Life, liberty, property. Influenced founding fathers
English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
We only exist in the mind of god.
Complex idea, treatise or human nature.
Dialectic process, he described the three-stage process of dialectical reasoning, on which Marx based his theory of dialectical materialism
Influenced by John Locke. Sexes. English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism.
English natural historian and geologist; a proponent of the theory of evolution by natural selection
A founder of existentialism, he affirmed the importance of individual experience and choice and believed that one could know God only through a “leap of faith,” not through doctrine
founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto
Idealist. countered Hume's skeptical empiricism by arguing that any affirmation or denial regarding the ultimate nature of reality (“noumenon”) makes no sense. His Critique of Practical Reason (1788) affirms the existence of an absolute moral law—the categorical imperative
Sex. Psychoanalytic theory
French philosopher, novelist, playwright, and critic. A leading existentialist, he dealt with the nature of human life and the structures of consciousness. He refused the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964