Welcome to the Sixties

Civil Rights Movement

President Truman

1945 - 1953

Although dwarfed by his actions in foreign policy, Truman:
-established CoCR
-desegregated the armed forces
-forbid racial discrimination in federal employment

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

Founded by President Truman to examine violence against civil rights + propose ways to protect them

Baseball

1947

Jackie Robinson integrated baseball in the Brooklyn Dodgers

Beatniks

1950 - 1959

-popular stereotype
-stressed ones inner self over material goods
-black turtlenecks, bongos, etc

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren
-first major case was Brown v. Board of Education
-aided the civil rights movement whenever possible

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954

determined that the race-based segregation of children into "separate but equal" public schools was not fair

Montgomery, AL

1955

Beginning of the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Greensboro, NC

1957

Sit-ins that led to the Woolworth department chain to reverse its policy of racial segregation

Eisenhower

1957

-created the 1957 Civil Rights Act, which aimed at protecting and allowing African Americans their right to vote
-paved the way for further bills

Eisenhower

1960

Civil Rights Act of 1960: levied taxes on those who refused to let blacks vote; created a Civil Rights Commission

SNCC

1960 - 1969

-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
- led by Ella Baker at Shaw U.
-organized protests and voting registration

Mapp vs. Ohio

1961

-police officers entered a home with a questionable warrant in search of a bombing suspect
-found obscene materials instead
-established the exclusionary rule

Mississippi

1962

Ole Miss riot of 1962: James H Meredith became the first black student to enter U of Mississippi' sparked rioting that made Pres. Kennedy sent U. S. Marshall troops

Alabama

1963

Birmingham Bombing- a black church was bombed, killing four young girls and injuring twenty-three people

Feminie Mystique

1963

-a book written by Betty Friedan
-challenged the idea that women should be wholly dependent on their husbands

March on Washington

1963

-attended by over 250,000 people
-included MLK jr. 's I Have A Dream speech
-supported by Kennedy after he realized they would not stop it

Gideon vs. Wainwright

1963

Court unanimously ruled that state courses are required to provide legal counsel for those who cannot afford it after a man was charged with stealing

24th Amendment

1964

-banned poll tax

Civil Rights Act

1964

-forbade job discrimination on the basis of race and sex

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

-Escobedo was arrested by police after being charged with murder
-repeatedly asked to see a lawyer after being brought to the police station and was denied
-eventually admitted to the murder
-Supreme court expanded the exclusionary rule to illegal confessions and overturned the conviction

Assasination

1965

-Malcolm X was assassinated

Riots

1965 - 1968

Ghetto Urban Riots: minorities in the inner city became frustrated with the limited oppurtunities; 100+ riots in ghetto areas; white businesses and police were mostly targets

Civil Rights Act

1965

-reinstated the 15th amendment
-states could not place voting restrictions unless they were approved by the Attorney General
-also allowed for "special enforcement" in areas where discrimination was the greatest

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

-creation of "Miranda Rights"
-every citizen is entitled to know their rights under the fifth amendment upon arrest

NOW

1966

National Organization of Women: (founders included Betty Friedan); stands against all forms of discrimination, included racism, homophobia, etc...

Thurgood Marshall

1967

-first African American appointed as a supreme court judge

Assassinations

1968

Killed:
-Martin Luther King Jr.
-Senator Robert Kennedy

Woodstock

1969

A three day music festival that embodied hippie culture

ERA

1972

Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution- banned discrimination based on sex

NEVER PASSED, but encouraged states to ratify their own constitutions

Cold War

First Atomic Bomb Detonated

July 16, 1945

Manhatten project tests first atomic bomb

Containment Policy

1946 - 1991

-policy by Truman to contain communism to soviet union and not allow it’s westward spread
-Defensive Policy: designed to extend containment policy on aninternational level with other nations

National Security Act

1947

set up:
*CIA- employed spies to gather info on foreign govs
*DOD- centralized department to coordinate the military branches
*NSC- coordinated the making of foriegn policy in the Cold War
*peacetime draft

Red Scare

1947 - 1954

Gov saw communist conspiracies behind civil wars in Europe + Asia => suspicions of Communists at home

Truman Doctrine

March 1947

sent $400 million dollars to turkey and Greece in military aid to prevent communism from spreading there

Marshall Plan

June 1947 - 1950

-economic aid to strengthen democratic countries
-commies could take it, but they didn't because Stalin would kill them
-$17 billion Big Money

Berlin Airlift

1948

-Stalin cut off US access to West Berlin
-aerial drops of resources supplied Berliners
-Stalin could not shoot the planes down and eventually ended the highway blockade

NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: allies (US, British, French, Canadians, etc.) against communists

First Atomic Bomb Test

August 29, 1949

-unofficial beginning of the arms race
-came as a surprise to the US
-speed came from spies inside development teams in the US

Joseph McCarthy

1950 - 1954

-republican senator from Wisconsin
-charged 205 state department workers w/being Communist; rode the wave of paranoia and anticommunism to make himself powerful
-bashed democrats and the wealthy with "gloves-off" unsupported accusations to keep the attention on himself and to discredit Truman
-a senate committee finally held televised hearings on Commie infiltration in the army in 1954, and McCarthy was seen as a bully by millions; republicans and democrats censured him
-"Three years later, McCarthy died a broken man."

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - 1953

-North Korea and (later) China vs. South Korea and the U. N.
-war started b/c US was trying to stop communism from spreading to South Korea

EFFECTS:
-in the strategy of the cold war, Truman's containment policy in Korea worked (stopped communism, no world war)
-provided an excuse to expand the military, create new jet bombers, and placing more troops in overseas bases
-Republicans used the war stalemate to hammer the democrats

Rosenburg Case

1951 - 1953

-Americans were convinced spies gave nuclear secrets to Russia
-FBI traced a spy ring to Julius and Ethel Rosenburg in New York
-were executed for the crime after a controversial trial

Truman vs. MacArthur

April 1951

-MacArthur was a general in the Korean War (had his good moments and his incredibly stupid ones)
-called for "expanded war" (bombing/invasion of China)
-his statements got him in trouble b/c they criticized Truman's "limited war," so he was put on trial for insubordination after MA refused to stop complaining
-MA came home to public support

Warsaw Pact

1955

-include Soviet Union + Eastern Europe
-basically a commie NATO

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

was a main step towards long range missiles for Russia programs in the Arms race between Russia and America was basically the first NASA

U-2 incident

May 1, 1960

was an American pilot flying a spy plane across Russia taking pictures of nuclear test sites then got shot down and captured but then released

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17, 1961

Kennedy used C.I.A. agents trained aided Cuban rebels to stage a coup against Cuba but failed

Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961 - November 9, 1989

was a wall that divided up Germany into east and west east was put under communism by soviet Russia

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Cuba got nukes from Russia which they used to threaten America
-pushed towards nuclear war
-diplomacy and M.A.D. got the nukes off of Cuba

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

August 7, 1964

-gave the president the power to use "all necessary measures" to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam
-spurred from the Gulf of Tonkin incident, where allegedly NV fired on US warships

Vietnam War

1965 - 1975

-another containment war
-failed at preventing South Vietnam from falling to communism
-some 2.7 million people died in a hopeless effort

Tet Offensive

January 1968

-NV attacked every base in SV
-US counterattcked and gave more than they got
-seen as a loss at home and demoralized many
-Vietnamization: policy as result because of Tet Offensive it was to train and equip the south Vietnam so troops could leave

1968 Election

1968

-republican team of Nixon and Wallace won
-proof that people had enough of hippie liberalism

SALT II

1972 - 1979

-continued SALT I
-reduced the manufacturing of nuclear weapons between the US and Soviet Union

End of Vietnam War

January 1973

Paris Peace accords
armistice agreed after several weeks of B-52 bomber attacks, the US withdrew troops and received over 500 POW’s
Also promised a cease-fire and free elections, but did not end the war between the two Vietnams

Star Wars

1983

Strategic Defense Initiative
proposed high-tech system of lasers and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles before reaching US territory
Critics stated the program would escalate the arms race and could be overwhelmed by the building of more missiles

Glasnost

1985

Mikhail Gorbachev
openness to end political repression and move to greater political freedom

Perestroika

1985 - October, 1990

Mikhail Gorbachev
restructuring Soviet economy by introducing some free-market practices

Gorbachev

1985

Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet leader
introduced two new reforms – glasnost and perestroika

Eastern Europe

1989

Communist governments began falling apart
Began in Poland, 1989 with the election of Lech Walesa
Then Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania fell
Communists were forced out of East Germany after protesters tore down the Berlin wall

Tienanmen Square

April 1989 - June 1989

prodemocracy students demonstrate in Beijing, China
Communist government crushed the demonstration with tanks under the cover of night, killing hundreds