A committee organized to discuss the status of civil rights in the country and how they could further be improved; the committee was called by President Truman
Integration of Baseball
Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier by being the first black player to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers.
Truman set out to improve Civil Rights
To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights was produced
1950 - 1970
Post WWII generation that believed in open sexuality, experimentation with drugs,and rejection of conformity.
Earl Warren Court
1953 - 1969
Earl Warren was a supreme court justice that made key decisions in the court cases of Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) of the civil rights era.
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. supreme court case that led to the integration of public schools; ruling the Plessy v. Ferguson unconstitutional
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in the front of a bus to a white man in opposition to Jim Crow Laws.
Jim Crow Laws- segregation in former confederate states, "separate but equal"
Civil Rights Act of 1957
The act was put into action on September 9, 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
Greensboro NC Public School Desegregation
After Brown v. Board of Education ruling schools in the south were integrated and many were still in opposition.
Civil Rights Act of 1960
Allowed for inspection of voting facilities to stop discrimination; the act also addressed loopholes in the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
1960 - 1970
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, led movements and sit ins during the civil rights era to help minorities.
Later on they focused on "black power" and opposition to the Vietnam war; they even took the nonviolent part out of their name but later separated in 1970
Mapp v. Ohio
Supreme Court case in which it was decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts.
James Meredith - Ole Miss
In 1960 James Meredith, a black air force veteran, applied to Ole Miss and was denied acceptance allegedly because of his race. The U.S. 5th circuit court of appeals then intervened and he was the first black student to graduate from Ole Miss.
MLK Jr. and other civil rights activists led a campaign for civil rights in Alabama; they displayed "civil disobedience" in opposition to their unfair treatment in that time.
The authorities then used fire hoses to stop the rioting; MLK Jr. was jailed and later wrote his famous letter from the Birmingham Jail.
A nonfiction book written by Betty Friedan which prompted the second wave feminism and portrayed how women were unhappy with their lives as suburban housewives.
Gideon v. Wainwright
In this supreme court case it was established that for those who could not afford an attorney in a court case would be provided one by the state.
March on Washington
250,000 gathered in Washington, D.C. for a protest and speeches concerning civil rights for all people during that time.
Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "I have a dream" speech and inspired millions.
Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This outlawed major forms of discrimination of blacks, women, and other minorities; it also ended segregation of public place and allowed for the end of discrimination of newly registered voters.
The act was enforced by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Escobedo v. Illinois
A supreme court case that established that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.
Malcolm X Assasination
While giving a speech Malcolm X, a Muslim civil rights activist who started the Afro-American Unity, was gunned down by several protestors in opposition to his viewpoints.
1965 - 1968
W. E. B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. and other leaders led riots for civil rights; sometimes nonviolent and other times violent they all had a major impact on the world we live in today.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended discriminatory practices among voting registration that allowed for widespread disenfranchisement of blacks.
Miranda v. Arizona
This supreme court case established that things criminals say or do can not be held against them if they are not told so.
NOW - National Organization for Women
A women's rights group started in 1966 that pushes for advancements in the world of women's rights; it is still active today.
Thurgood Marshall became the first black supreme court justice in 1967 and served till 1991.
Marshall gained original fame in his arguing of Brown v. Board of Education; he also argued the most cases in front of the supreme court
Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy were killed in 1968 in opposition to their political and social ideals.
MLK Jr. led a civil rights campaign while Kennedy was running for president.
This music festival held in upstate New York was a pivotal moment for the beatnik generation and had a huge impact on popular culture.
500,000 concert goers stayed for the three day event on a dairy farm were huge musicians got their start.
ERA - Equal Rights Amendment
A proposed amendment for equal rights of women; it passed in the house and senate but failed in the ratification of all the states.
UN-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
1939 - 1950
-originally established to catch Nazi conspirators
-after WWII was used to convict communists
-investigated communist influence in organizations like the Boy Scouts and the Hollywood film industry
1945 - 1950
-the soviets and Americans were both in the “arms race” to develop better and more powerful atomic weapons
1945 - 1950
-Truman’s policy which attempted to contain communism
-didnt want other countries to become communist
Second Red Scare
1945 - 1950
-just like after WWI
-people in all walks of life were suspected of being communist conspirators
National Security Act
-provided for a central defense department
-created the NSC
-Truman made a speech in 1947
-US would aid the Turks in order to stop communism from getting there
-the soviets cut off all land access to Berlin
-The US flew in supplies every week and sent plains with atomic bomb capability to England
the Truman administration gave 17 billion dollars to western European countries as aid over a four year period
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-Military alliance for defending from outside attack
-US, Canada, and western euro countries
Contain Communism in North Korea
-Cold War Policy
-Communist N. Korea invaded democratic S. Korea
-U.S. intervened; didn't want communism to spread
1950 - 1954
-republican senator from Wisconsin
-gained power and popularity for his suspicion of communism in the U.S. state department
-was seen as a bully on national TV after a screening of hearings on commmunist infiltration in the army
1950 - 1953
-communist North Korea invaded democratic south Korea
-US helped south Korea
-no clear victor
Truman Vs. MacArthur
1950 - 1951
-Truman wanted to do the minimal to keep communism in Korea
-MacArthur wanted to invade China and conduct all out war
-MacArthur was fired
-U.S. later withdrew from Korea
1951 - 1953
-after the Soviets made their atomic bomb, the U.S. suspected spies gave them secrets
-the Rosenbergs were found guilty of the crime and were executed
-the USSR launched the first sattelite into space
-this was seen as a U.S. embarassment
-millions of dollars were poured into research and education
-the aggression between the US and the USSR
-after the USSR rejected freedom of the skies to the U.S., the U.S. sent spy planes over the Soviet Union
-the USSR shot down a U2 plane
-spying was exposed
Bay of Pigs Invasion
-US invasion of Cuba
-a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic
-seperated the east and west
-communist and democratic
Cuban Missile Crisis
-14-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side, and the United States on the other
-US wanted missiles removed from Cuba
-missiles were later removed
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
-sea battle between US ships and N. Vietnamese torpedo boats
-a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed
-in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
-President Johnson could intervene if any south east asian countries governments were using communist agression
1964 - 1975
-the US aided south Vietnam against north vietnam
-North Vietnam was communist
-similar to Korean War
-US later pulled out of war
Richard Nixon won big with the electoral vote and barley with the popular vote
-military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched
-by forces of the Viet Cong
The Nixon administration's Vietnamization plan provided for a gradual, phased withdrawal of American combat forces, combined with an expanded effort to train and equip South Vietnam to take over military responsibility for its own defense
1972 - 1979
-a series of talks between United States and Soviet negotiators
-sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons
End of War
South Vietnam fell to the Communist forces in 1975
President Reagan proposed the creation of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), an ambitious project that would construct a space-based anti-missile system. This program was immediately dubbed "Star Wars."
-a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
-the last leader of the Soviet Union
-had important negotiations with Ronald Reagan
-power was ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed
-another reform by Gorbachev
-litterally means restructuring
pro-democracy movement which ended on 4 June 1989 with the declaration of martial law in Beijing by the government and the death of several hundred or possibly thousands of civilians.