Post WWII

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

12/05/1946 - 12/1947

President Truman established
-to challenge racial discrimination
-to investigate the status of civil rights in the country

Intergration of Military

1/1/47 - 1/2/47

Truman

Truman

March 1947 - 1948

-Truman Doctrine was created was a containment policy after communist uprising in Turkey and the Soviets demand for control in Turkey’s Dardanelles
-Truman got congress ‘free people’ in Greece and Turkey with $400 million in economic and military aid
-The Marshall Plan was economic aid to European nations with their economies and strengthen democratic governments
-Truman submitted $17 billion recovery program and in 1948 $12 billion disributed to Western countries over 4 years

Baseball

April 15 1947 - July 5 1947

-Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier with his appearance for the Brooklyn Dodgers
-The American League integrated, by signing Larry Doby to the Cleveland Indians.

Beatniks

1950 - 1965

-group of rebellious writers and intellectuals made up the beat generation of the 1950’s
-led by Jack Kerouac ( On the Road, 1957) and poet Allen Ginsberg (“Howl,” 1956)
-advocated spontaneity,use of drugs, and rebellion against the standards of society
-role models for the youth rebellion of the sixties

Brown v. Board of Education

12/9/1952 - 5/17/1954

-Overturned the Plessy case, decision by Chief Justice Earl Warren
-Ruled that separate facilities are inherently unequal and segregation in schools should end

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

-Decisions effected the criminal justice system, the political system of the states, and the definition of civil rights
-Most important case involving race relations was Brown v. Board of Education

Montgomery, AL

1955

-Rosa Parks was arrested when she sat in the white section on a public bus and wouldn’t move
-Protest among African Americans boycotting riding city buses
-When Martin Luther King Jr. emerged
-When Supreme Court ruled segregation laws unconstitutional in 1956

Eisenhower

January 5, 1957

-Eisenhower Doctrine, pledging economic and military aid to the Middle East threatened by communism.
-Two laws in 1957 and 1960 were first enacted by congress after Reconstruction

Eisenhower

1960 - 1961

-civil rights sit-ins begin in Greensboro, NC leading to SNCC
-Eisenhower signed Civil Rights Act of 1960
-Kennedy recieves democratic presidential nomination, Nixon recieves republican nomination
-issues with Russia and U.S. spys
-Kennedy defeats Nixon
-in farewell address Eisenhower warns Amricans of growing military power

SNCC

1960 - 1970

-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
-formed out of the sit-ins in Greebsboro, NC
-African Americans used the sit-in tactic to integrate restaurants, hotels, buildings’ libraries, pools, and transportation throughout the south

Greensboro, NC

February 1960

-college students participated in the sit in movement after being denied service at the segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter
-students were arrested when deliberatly sitting in restricted areas
-led to the forming of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Mapp v. Ohio

March 29, 1961 - June 19, 1961

-ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused

Mississippi

1962
  • James Meredith a young black air force veteran , attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi, federal court guaranteed his right to attend -J.F.K sent 400 federal marshals and 3,000 troops to control the mob violence and protect Meredith’s right to sttend class

Alabama

1963

-Birmingham Campaign- strategic movement organized by SCLC to bring attention to the unequal treatment that black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama

Feminine Mystique

1963

-book by Betty Friedan, that gave the women’s movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillmentin proffesional careers rather than confining themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker

Gideon v. Wainwright

January 15, 1963 - March 18, 1963

-required that state courts provide counsel (services of an attorney) for indigent (poor) defendants

March on Washington

08/28/1963

-King led a peaceful march in support of the civil rights bill
-King gave his historic "I Have A Dream" speech

24th ammendment

January 23, 1964

-Abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax

Escobedo v. Illinois

April 29, 1964 - June 22, 1964

-required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent (Miranda Rights)

Civil Rights Act of 1964

07/02/1964

-Made segregation illegal in all public facilities
-Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded Congress to pass
-set up the Equal Employment Oppurtunity Commission to end racial discrimination in employment.

Riots

1965 - 1968

-Race riots erupted in black neighborhoods of major cities
-Watts riots in LA, California resulted in the deaths of 34 people

Miranda v. Arizona

02/28/1966 - 06/13/1966

Extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police

National Organization for Women (NOW)

06/30/1966

-Founded by Betty Friedan
-Adopted the activist tactics of other cicil rights movements for equal treatment of women

Thurgood Marshall

October 2, 1967 - October 1, 1991

1934- Begins to work for Baltimore branch of NAACP
1950- Won Smith vs. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents
1967-Becomes first African American elevated to U.S. Supreme Court

Assasinations

04/04/1968 - 06/05/68

6/5/68-Senator Robert Kennedy entered the presidental race, won a victory in California's primary but was shot immediately after his victory speech
4/4/68-Martin Luther King was shot in Memphis, TN

Woodstock Music Festival

08/15/1969 - 08/18/1969

-Gathering of thousands of "hippies" in upstate NY
-Reflected the counterculture of young people in rebellious style of dress, music, and drug use

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

1972 - 06/30/1982

-Congress proposed equality of rights should not be denied on acount of sex
-Denied because of conservative reaction to radical feminists

Cold War

UN-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1939

-goal was to find Communists
-investigated gov. officials
-looked for communists in Boy Scouts and the Hollywood film industry
-writers directors and actors were called to testify to the committee and if they refused they were tried for contempt of congress and blacklisted
-American Civil Liberties Union argued that the 1st amendment allowed free expressio of unpopular political views

Atomic Weapons

1945

Soviet Union and US in an arms race to develop superior weapon systems
Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949

Containment Policy

1947

George Keenen
prevent the spread of communism

National Security Act

1947

centralized Department of Defence to coordinate the operations of the Army, Navy, and Air Force
created National Security Counsil
created CIA

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

economic and militairy aid to assist the “free people” of Greece and Turkey

Berlin Airlift

1948

Soviets set up a blockade around Berlin
Truman ordered U.S. planes to fly in supplies for the people of western Berlin

Marshall Plan

1948

$12 billion in aid was distributed to the countries of Western Europe over a 4-yr period
Soviet Union and its satellites were offered aid, but refused

Defensive Policy

1948

deals w/ international security and the military
compromises the measures and initiatives that governments take in relation to decision making and strategic goals

NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
military alliance for defending all members from outside attack
Truman selected General Eisenhower as the first Supreme Commander and stationed US troops in Western Europe

Joseph McCarthy

1950 - 1954

-Rep. Senator from Wisconsin
-used growing concerm of communisim for reelection campaign
-in a speech in 1950 said 205 communists in state department
-people were afraid of his accusations
-accusations about communists gov. in media and discredit Truman
-hurt Dem. before election of Eisenhower, who himself would not argue with McCarthy
-televised senate committee hearing on communist in the army made McCarthy look like a bully
-witchhunt for communist died out

Goal: Contain Communism in North Korea

June 25 1950 - November 1950

-Korea was divided at the 38th parallel
-Soviet occupied north, U.S. occupied south
-Truman applied his contain communism policy
-U.S. was kicked out by China
-In the end the south was not communist and the north was

Rosenberg Case

1951 - 1954

-Soviets tested their first atomic bomb,U.S.was convincced that spies stole our technology
-Klaus Fuchs a British scientist admitted to giving the soviets atomic bomb secrets
-FBI traced another spy ring to Ju;lis and Ethel Rosenberg
-controversial trial, convicted and found guilty of treason, executed

Truman Vs. MacArthur

April 1951

-Truman cautioned MacArthur about making public statements that suggested criticism of U.S. policy
-He spoke out anyway, and Truman recalled MacArthur for insubordination
-Most Americans understood his statement “There is no substitute for victory” better then Trumans concept of limited war

End of War

November 1 1955 - April 30 1975

-Vietnam War
-in April 1970, U.S. invade Cambodia
-When North Vietnamfailed compromise, U.S. bombed N.V.
-Armistice with the North Vietnamese, taking out U.S. troops and POWs
-Paris Accords Jan 1973 promised cease fire and free elections

Sputnik

1957

-First artificial Earth satellite
-Launched by Moscow
-Sparked U.S. fears of nuclear war and Soviet dominance in technology and outer space
-Led to the creation of NASA and the space race

U-2 Incident

1960

-American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union
-Exposed a secret U.S. tactic for gaining information
-Worsened East-West relations

Berlin Wall

1961

-East Germans built a wall around West Berlin to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
-West Berlin still supported U.S.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 1961

-CIA-trained force of Cubans failed to set off a general uprising as planned
-Trapped, they surrendered
-Kennedy rejected the idea of using U.S. forces to save them
-Castro used the failed invasion to get even more aid from the Soviet Union and to strengthen his grip on power

Cuban Missle Crisis

October 1962

-US discovered that Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minutes
-A US naval blockade of cuba until the weapons were removed
-Krushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba after kennedy pledged not to invade the island nation
-Led to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

August 7, 1964

-Gave the president a blank check to take “all necessary measures” to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam
-Issued after a naval incident in the Gulf of Tonkin

Escalation

1965

-expanding operations in Vietnam to save the Saigon govt.
-Johnson called in more and more troops to South Vietnam

Tet Offensive

January 30, 1968

-A surprise attack by Vietcong on US and allies
-Not supposed to happen due to a cease fire originally called
-U.S. counterattacked and won back lost territory
-Victory for Vietcong and North Vietnamese b/c it demoralized the American public

1968 Election

November 5 1968

-runners are George Wallace, Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey
-the democratic convention in Chicago and antiwar demonstrators tried to control the streets resulting in “police riot”
-Richard Nixon wins becoming the first republican president in 12 yrs
-the combined total of Nixon’s and Wallace’s popular vote of almost 57%

Vietnamization

1969

-Nixon with drew U.S. troops from Vietnam
-gave south Vietnamese money, weapons, and training
-went from troops 540,000 to 30,000
-led to Nixon Doctrine

Salt II

1972 - 1979

series of talks between U.S. negotiators and Soviet negotiators to curtail manufacture of strategic nuclear arms.

Star Wars

1984

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) plan for building a high tech system of laser and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles.

Gorbachev

1985

-intorduced to major reforms: glasnost and perestroika
-1987 Gorbachev agreed to remove and destroy all intermediate range missiles
-1988 gorbachev pulled Soviet troops out of Afghanistan
-Soviet union dissolved in 1991

Glasnost

1985

-was a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the soviet union.
-move toward greater political freedom for Soviet citizens

Perestrokia

1986

-was a political movement for reformation within the communist party of the soviet union
-reconstructing Soviet economy by introducing some free market practices
-had to end arms race to achieve this

Eastern Europe

1989 - 1991

-Poland in 1989 with leader Lech Walesa, communist party fell one after the other: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania
-In East Germany communism fell with the fall of the Berlin Wall
-October 1990 both Germany’s reunited because of NATO and Soviet Union
-1990 Soviet Baltic republics declared independence: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Tiananmen Square

June 3 1989 - June 4 1989

-Student led protests in Beijing
-Army intervention and the protest was overcome
-Zhao Ziyang out and Jiang Zemin