Post World War Two

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

1946 - 1947

-Pres. Harry Truman
-Investigated civil rights
-Propose measures to strengthen and protect them



-Committee of civil rights-report called "To Secure These Rights"
-Integration of the military



-Jackie Robinson
-Integration of baseball teams


1950 - 1960

-group of rebellious writers and intellectuals made up the beat generation of the 1950’s
-led by Jack Kerouac ( On the Road, 1957) and poet Allen Ginsberg (“Howl,” 1956)
-advocated spontaneity,use of drugs, and rebellion against the standards of society
-role models for the youth rebellion of the sixties

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

-Decisions effected the criminal justice system, the political system of the states, and the definition of civil rights
-Most important case involving race relations was Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education


-Segregation in public schools unconstitutional b/c of 14th amendment
-Supreme Court agreed & overturned Plessy case
-Separate facilities unconstitutional and segregation in schools should end

Montgomery, AL


-The Montgomery Bus Boycott
-Blacks wouldn’t take the bus
-Rosa Parks



-civil rights sit-ins begin in Greensboro, NC leading to SNCC
-Eisenhower signed Civil Rights Act of 1960
-Kennedy recieves democratic presidential nomination, Nixon recieves republican nomination
-issues with Russia and U.S. spys
-Kennedy defeats Nixon
-in farewell address Eisenhower warns Amricans of growing military power

Greensboro, NC


Series of Sit-Ins, nonviolent protests
Instrumental action- increased national want for Af. Am. rights
Woolworth store- reversed policy of racial segregation


1960 - 1970

-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
-formed out of the sit-ins in Greebsboro, NC
-African Americans used the sit-in tactic to integrate restaurants, hotels, buildings’ libraries, pools, and transportation throughout the south

Mapp v. Ohio


ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused



Ole Miss Riot-between southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi

March on Washington


Martin Luther King Jr. led about 200,000 blacks & whites in the peaceful March on Washington in support of the Civil Rights Bill. He gave his “I Have a Dream” speech, which appealed for the end of racial prejudice.



Birmingham campaign
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Bring attention to the unequal treatment that black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama.

Feminine Mystique


Nonfiction book
Betty Friedman
Sparked the beginning of second-wave feminism
Helped to found the National Organization for Women

Gideon v. Wainwright


-required that state courts provide counsel (services of an attorney) for indigent (poor) defendants

Civil Rights Act of 1964


Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
Ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public.

Escobedo v. Illinois


Right to counsel under 6th amendment

24th Amendment


Right to vote on payments of poll taxes

Civil Rights Act of 1965


-Made segregation illegal in all public facilities
-Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded Congress to pass


1965 - 1968

-Race riots erupted in black neighborhoods of major cities
-Watts riots in LA, California resulted in the deaths of 34 people

Miranda v. Arizona


Extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police

National Organization for Women (NOW)


-Founded by Betty Friedan
-Adopted the activist tactics of other cicil rights movements for equal treatment of women

Thurgood Marshall


1934- Begins to work for Baltimore branch of NAACP
1950- Won Smith vs. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents
1967-Becomes first African American elevated to U.S. Supreme Court



6/5/68-Senator Robert Kennedy entered the presidental race, won a victory in California’s primary but was shot immediately after his victory speech
4/4/68-Martin Luther King was shot in Memphis, TN

Woodstock Music Festival


-Gathering of thousands of “hippies” in upstate NY
-Reflected the counterculture of young people in rebellious style of dress, music, and drug use

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)


-Congress proposed equality of rights should not be denied on account of sex
-Denied because of conservative reaction to radical feminists

Compromise of 1977


Ended Reconstruction

Cold War



-First artificial Earth satellite
-Launched by Moscow
-Sparked U.S. fears of nuclear war and Soviet dominance in technology and outer space
-Led to the creation of NASA and the space race

U-2 Incident


-American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union
-Exposed a secret U.S. tactic for gaining information
-Worsened East-West relations

Berlin Wall


-East Germans built a wall around West Berlin to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
-West Berlin still supported U.S.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 1961

-CIA-trained force of Cubans failed to set off a general uprising as planned
-Trapped, they surrendered
-Kennedy rejected the idea of using U.S. forces to save them
-Castro used the failed invasion to get even more aid from the Soviet Union and to strengthen his grip on power

Cuban Missle Crisis

October 1962

-US discovered that Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minutes
-A US naval blockade of cuba until the weapons were removed
-Krushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba after kennedy pledged not to invade the island nation
-Led to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty



Tonkin Gulf Resolution

August 7, 1964

-Gave the president a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam
-Issued after a naval incident in the Gulf of Tonkin

Tet Offensive

January 30, 1968

-A surprise attack by Vietcong on US and allies
-Not supposed to happen due to a cease fire originally called
-U.S. counterattacked and won back lost territory
-Victory for Vietcong and North Vietnamese b/c it demoralized the American public