Post World War Two

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Civil Rights

Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 1953

Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945
Truman administration titled To Secure These Rights presented a detailed ten-point agenda of civil rights reforms
February 1948, the president submitted civil rights agenda to Congressproposed creating several federal offices devoted to issues such as voting rights and fair employment practices.
July 1948, desegregating and requiring equal opportunity in the Armed Forces.
the Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity and the various branches of the military, Army units became racially integrated.

Committee of Civil Rights

December 5, 1946 - December 1947

The committee was instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them.

Baseball

April 15, 1947 - 1949

jackie robinson broke the color barrier in baseball stopped the segregation in the game

Beatniks

1950 - 1959

was a media stereotype of the 1950s to mid 1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images, along with a cartoonish depiction of the real-life people and the spiritual quest in Jack Kerouac's autobiographical fiction.

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. Eisenhower made clear his stance in his first State of the Union message in February 1953, saying "I propose to use whatever authority exists in the office of the President to end segregation in the District of Columbia, including the Federal Government, and any segregation in the Armed Forces".

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and the federal power in dramatic ways.

The court was both applauded and criticized for bringing an end to racial segregation in the United States, incorporating the Bill of Rights (i.e. applying it to states), and ending officially sanctioned voluntary prayer in public schools. The period is recognized as a high point in judicial power that has receded ever since, but with a substantial continuing impact.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954

landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.

Montgomery, AL

1955

bus boycott led by mlk made him famous rosa parks refuses to sit in the back of the bus so blacks refused to ride to ride the bus and it worked

Mapp v. Ohio

May 23, 1957

was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well, as had previously been the law, as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in this case this involved the incorporation of the provisions, as construed by the Court, of the Fourth Amendment which are literally applicable only to actions of the federal government into the Fourteenth Amendment due process clause which is literally applicable to actions of the states.

Greensboro, NC

February 1, 1960

four black college students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College sat down at an all-white Woolworth's lunch counter, and refused to leave after they were denied service. The four students purchased small items in other parts of the store and kept their receipts, then sat down at the lunch counter and asked to be served. After being denied service, they produced their receipts and asked why their money was good everywhere else at the store, but not at the lunch counter. Hundreds of others soon joined in this sit-in, which lasted several months.

SNCC

April 1960

was one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 per week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland SNCC played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years. SNCC's major contribution was in its field work, organizing voter registration drives all over the South, especially in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

Gideon v. Wainwright

1963

is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys, extending the identical requirement made on the federal government under the Sixth Amendment.

Feminine Mystique

1963

a nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

In 1957, Friedan was asked to conduct a survey of her former Smith College classmates for their 15th anniversary reunion; the results, in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives, prompted her to begin research for The Feminine Mystique, conducting interviews with other suburban housewives, as well as researching psychology, media, and advertising. She originally intended to publish an article on the topic, not a book, but no magazine would publish her article

Alabama

1963

16th Street Baptist Church, where the students involved in the 1963 Children's Campaign were trained and left in groups of 50 to march on City Hall, and where four young African American girls were killed and 22 churchgoers were injured in a bombing on September 15, 1963.
Kelly Ingram Park, where many protests by blacks were held, often resulting in recrimination by Birmingham police, including the famous 1963 scenes of policemen turning back young protesters with fire hoses and police dogs. News coverage of the riots in this park helped turn the tide of public opinion in the United States against segregationist policies. Several sculptures in the park depict scenes from those police riots.
The Fourth Avenue Business District where much of the city's black businesses and entertainment venues were located; the area was the hub of the black community for many years. The business district includes A. G. Gaston's Booker T. Washington Insurance Co. and the Gaston Hotel, a meeting place for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights during the early 1960s.

March on Washington

august 28, 1963

was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history] and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony during the march.

Riots

1964 - 1967

Most significant were the Harlem Riot of 1964, the Watts Riot of 1965, and the Detroit Riot of 1967

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

was a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.

24th Amendment

January 23, 1964

prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Mississippi

june 21,1964 - june 22, 1964

Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner were threatened, intimidated, beaten, shot, and buried by members of the Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County’s Sheriff Office and the Philadelphia Police Department located in Philadelphia, Mississippi. After the largest and most televised search at the time, their bodies were found 44 days later in an earthen dam near the murder site.

Civil Rights Act

July 2, 1964

outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations").

Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years. Congress asserted its authority to legislate under several different parts of the United States Constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under Article One (section 8), its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment and its duty to protect voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment. The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who would later sign the landmark Voting Rights Act into law.

Civil Rights Act of 1965

1965

is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.

Assassination

February 21, 1965

Malcolm X prepared to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, a disturbance broke out in the 400-person audience—a man yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket! As Malcolm X and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance] a man seated in the front row rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a double-barreled sawed-off shotgun. Two other men charged the stage and fired semi-automatic handguns, hitting Malcolm X several times.

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which passed 5-4. The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. This had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.

NOW

June 30, 1966

28 women and men attending the Third National Conference of State Commissions on the Status of Women, the successor to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.[4] It had been three years since the Commission reported findings of women being discriminated against. However, the 1966 Conference delegates were prohibited by the administration's rules for the conference from even passing resolutions recommending that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination.

The founders included Betty Friedan (the author of The Feminine Mystique (1963), who was also NOW's first president), Rev. Pauli Murray, the first African-American female Episcopal priest, and Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman to run for president of the United States of America. Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray wrote NOW's Statement of Purpose in 1966; the original was scribbled on a napkin by Friedan.

Thurgood Marshall

October 1967 - October 1991

was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.

Assassinations

1968

Robert Kennedy and MLKJ were both assassinated in 1968

Woodstock

August 15,1969 - August 18,1969

was a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music". It was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre (2.4 km²; 240 ha, 0.94 mi²) dairy farm in the Catskills near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel, New York, from August 15 to August 18, 1969. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles (69 km) southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, in adjoining Ulster County.

ERA

1972

was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and, in 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and went to the state legislatures for ratification. The ERA failed to receive the requisite number of ratifications before the final deadline mandated by Congress of June 30, 1982 expired, and so it was not adopted, largely because Phyllis Schlafly mobilized conservatives to oppose ERA. Supporters in 2012 tried to revive the discussion of the Equal Rights Amendment, via a petition on the White House Website.

Cold War

(HUAC)

1938

investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties

Defensive Policy

1945 - 1961

Public policy dealing with international security

Containment Policy

1947 - 1991

Policy to prevent the spread of communism

Truman Doctrine

1947

Trumans speech stating U.S will support Greece and Turkey

Marshall Plan

1947

U.S program to aid Europe following World War Two

Atomic Weapons

1947

Weapons of mass destruction that were highly deadly

National Security Act

1947

Re-aligned and re-organized U.S armed forces

Berlin Airlift

1948

American aid to Berlin when the soviets blocked the 3 ways to west berlin

Bay of Pigs

1948

Unsuccessful anti-revolution squadron sent by CIA to put down Cuban Revolution.

NATO

1949

An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty

Korean War

1950 - 1953

U.S. w/ U.N. helps S. Korea vs. N. Korea a & China
Goal: Contain Communism in North Korea
Effects: Truman fired General McArthur who was widely popular. This caused much criticism.