Post World War II

Main

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

investigated status of civil rights in America and strengthened them

Truman

1947

President Harry Truman made civil rights a national issue in 1947.

Baseball

April 15, 1947

Jackie Robinson breaks baseball's color barrier.

Beatniks

1950 - 1960

Media stereotype of the beat generation

Brown v. Board of Education

1954

Supreme court ruled that separate schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 1, 1955

African Americans boycotted buses in Montgomery, Alabama.

Greensboro NC

February, 1957

African American sat at white-only counters while they were refused service.

Eisenhower

September, 1957

Voting Civil rights act during Eisenhower's presidency

Civil Rights Act of 1960

1960

Established federal inspection of local voter registration polls. Eisenhower

SNCC

1960 - 1970

Student Nonviolent Coordinating committee. Civil rights group.

Mapp v. Ohio

May, 1961

Warren Court left a legacy of judicial activism in the area of civil rights law as well as in the area of civil liberties—specifically, the rights of the accused as addressed in Amendments 4 through 8.

Mississippi

September, 1962

Ole Miss riot of 1962: fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.

Feminine Mystique

1963

Nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

March on Washington

August, 1963

Called for Civil and economic rights for African-Americans. MLK

Civil Rights Act

1964

Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.2 It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (“public accommodations”).

24th Amendment

1964

Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

After a year is was decided by the court that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.

Riots 1965-68

1965 - 1968

Watt’s Riots, City riots

Civil Rights Act of 1965

1965

National legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.

Assasination

1965

Malcolm X was Assassinated

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

Court said that whatever a defendant says can not be used as evidence if he or she is not read their Miranda Rights. This case developed the Miranda rights.

National Organization for Women

1966

Was founded in 1966 and the main goal was to try and get equal rights for women.

Thurgood Marshall

1967

First African American justice to be apart of the Supreme Court.

Assasination 1968

1968

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in 1968.

Woodstock

1969

A large music festival with all the hippies about equality

ERA

1972

A proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women that failed to be passed.

Cold War

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

1938 - 1975

Investigated disloyalty and subversive activities in organizations they thought had communist ties.

Truman Doctrine

1947

President Truman’s promise to help nations struggling against communist movements.

Containment Policy

1947

Us policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism.

National Security Act

1947

Created the Department Defense, National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency.

Marshall Plan

1948

A plan that the U.S. provided aid to all European nations that needed it.

Berlin Airlift

1948

Joint effort by the US and Britain to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.

N.A.T.O.

1949

an international organization created by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security.

Joseph McCarthy

1950

Claimed there were many communist supporters and spies in the United States and the federal government.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

U.S. w/ U.N. helps S. Korea vs. N. Korea a & China

Atomic Weapons

1950

USA and USSR create atomic weaponry.

Truman vs MacArthur

1951

Truman dismissed General MacArthur.

Rosenberg Case

June 19, 1953

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed committing espionage during a time of war. Passed info about atomic bomb to Russia.

U-2 Incident

1955

U.S.S.R. shot down a U.S. spy plane. U.S. secret tactics were revealed on obtaining information.

Sputnik

1957

The Soviet Union sent into orbit Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite in history. Sputnik’s launch came as an unnerving surprise to the United States. The space age had dawned and America’s Cold War rival suddenly appeared technologically superior.

Berlin Wall

1961

Germany was divided into West and East. The capital of Germany Berlin was also divided into West and East through the Berlin wall.

Bay of Pigs

1961

JFK approved the CIA to overthrow Fidel’s Castro’s regime in Cuba.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Russia was building missiles in Cuba to launch over to the U.S. Kennedy then announced that he setting up a naval blockade until the weapons were removed.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

President Lyndon Johnson dispatched U.S. planes against the attackers (North Vietnamese) in the Gulf of Tonkin and got Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions.

Escalation

1965 - 1968

Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder, leading to over 184,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam within one year. He continued gradually adding troops and by the end of 1967, the U.S. had over 485,000 troops in Vietnam.

Tet Offensive

1968

North Vietnamese troops and Viet Cong forces attacked around 100 major cities and towns in South Vietnam, breaking the ceasefire that had been called for the Vietnamese holiday of Tet.

1968 Election

1968

The Republican nominee, former Vice-President Richard Nixon, won the election over the Democratic nominee, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation’s cities, torn by riots and crime.

Vietnamization

1969

President Richard Nixon introduced a new strategy called Vietnamization that was aimed at ending American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam.

SALT II

1969 - 1979

2nd round of talks between cold war super powers about armament control.

End of Vietnam War

1975

South Vietnam surrendered on April 30, 1975, following the fall of its capital.

Star Wars

1983

Strategic Defense Initiative

Glasnost

1985

policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.

Perestroika

1986

political movement for reform within the communist party

Mikhail Gorbachev

1988 - 1991

First and only president of the Soviet Union.

Tiananmen Square

1989

Known as the June 4th incident, protests in Beijing cased the Massacre of June 4th which the Chinese military fired upon civilians causing many casualties.