Post WWII

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

12-5-46 - 12-5-47

Investigate civil rights and improve/protect them

Baseball

1947

Jackie Robinson was the first African American baseball player

Intergration of Military

1-1-47 - 1-2-47

Truman

Truman Doctrine

3-12-47

U.S would support Turkey and Greece with economic and military aid

Beatniks

1950 - 1960

Beatnik was a media stereotype that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation.

Warren Court

1953 - 1969

The supreme court from 1953-69, Earl Warren served as chief justice

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

5-17-54

the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

12-1-55 - 12-20-56

African Americans decided that they would boycott the city buses until they could sit anywhere they wanted

Eisenhower

1-1-57

Kick-started the civil rights legislative program that was to include the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

Greensboro, NC - 1957

1-1-57 - 1-1-60

A series of nonviolent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)

1-4-60

One of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University.

Eisenhower

5-1-60

U-2 incident

Mapp v. Ohio

6-19-61

The Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts.

Ole Miss riot

10-1-62

Fought between Southern segregationist and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student, James, Meredith at the University of Mississippi.

Birmingham campaign

1963

Movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment to African Americans

The Feminine Mystique

2-19-63

A nonfiction book written by Betty Friedan which sparked the beginning of second-wave feminism

Gideon v. Wainwright

3-18-63

The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys, extending the identical requirement made on the federal government under the Sixth Amendment.

March on Washington

8-28-63

Largest political rally in history, rioted for jobs and freedom of African Americans.

24th Amendment

1-23-64

Ended poll tax

Escobedo v. Illinois

6-22-64

Criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment

Civil Rights Act of 1964

7-2-64

Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women

Riots

1965 - 1968

Watts Riots

Assassination – 1965

2-21-65

Malcolm X was assassinated

Voting Rights Act

8-6-65

Allowed African Americans to vote

NOW(National Organization for Women)

1966

Dedicated to help women's rights

Miranda v. Arizona

6-13-66

The Supreme Court ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination.

Thurgood Marshall

1967

Began Serving on the Supreme Court

Assassination 1968

6-5-68

Assassination of president Robert F. Kennedy

Woodstock

8-15-69 - 8-18-69

A music festival

Equal Rights Amendment(ERA)

1972

Designed to protect the rights of women

Cold War

HUAC

1939

reactivated to find Communists. Investigated government officials and looked for communist influence in organizations

Atomic Weapons

1945 - 1949

US was the only nation to have an atomic bomb.

Containment Policy

1946

George Kannan; Stop the spread of communism

National Security Act

1947

realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II

Defensive Policy

1947

States whether a country will help an “ally” or not

Truman Doctrine

1947

Gave economic and military aid to European countries

Marshall Plan

7/1/1947

Gave economic support to help rebuild Europe after WWII

Berlin Airlift

1948

The US flew supplies into East Berlin because they were not being given a sufficient amount of supplies

NATO

4/4/1949

Defensive Military Alliance

Joseph McCarthy

1950 - 1954

used concern of Communism in reelection campaign. Was favored by many but in 1954, televised hearing ruined his career

Second Red Scare

1951

Truman administration’s tendency to see a Communist conspiracy behind civil wars in Europe and Asia contributed to the belief that there were also Communist conspirators and spies in the US State Department, the military, and all institutions

Rosenberg Case

1951 - 1953

Rosenbergs found guilty of treason and executed for crime

Truman v. MacArthur

1951

MacArthur made public statements that suggested criticism of official US policy. Truman recalled MacArthur for insubordination

Effects of T v. M

1951

Americans favored MacArthur’s statement better than the president’s containment policy. Truman and Democrats were viewed by many as appeasers for not trying to destroy communism in Asia

Sputnik

10/4/1957

-First artificial satellite
-Began Space Age and triggered the Space Race
-Soviet Union launched it into orbit

U-2 Incident

5/1/1960

-US U-2 spy plane was shot down
-Plane was shot down over airspace of Soviet Union

Bay of Pigs

4/17/1961

-Unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by the US
-Trying to stop Communist roots from being placed in Cuba

Berlin Wall

9/13/1961

-Cut off West Berlin from East Berlin
-Separated East and West Germany
-Berlin Airlift Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

10/1962

-Confrontation with Soviet Union over supposed missiles in Cuba
-Missiles placed to stop US invasion
-Agreement that Soviet Union would remove missiles; US wouldn’t invade

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

9/7/1964

Authorized President to do whatever necessary in order to assist "any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty"

Escaltion

1965 - 1968

Slowly added more troops to the war

Vietnamization

1968

"expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops."

Tet Offensive

1/30/1968

Campaign of surprise attacks that were launched against military and civilian command

Election of 1968

11/5/1968

Richard Nixon won over Hubert Humphrey; changed public opinion of the Vietnamese

SALT II

1972 - 1979

A series of talks between United States and Soviet negotiators which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons.

Star Wars

1979

an ambitious plan for building high-tech system of lasers and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles before they could reach the US

Perestroika

1980 - 1989

A political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Glasnost

1985

Called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union

Tiananmen Square

6/3/1989 - 6/4/1989

Troops with assault rifles and tanks inflicted thousands of casualties on unarmed civilians trying to block the military’s advance on Tiananmen Square in the heart of Beijing