Germans operated schools in Philadelphia in their native language with intermittent attempts of English instruction
Benjamin Franklin failed attempt of promoting a linguistic assimilation school where English was the medium for instruction.
John Adams tried to establish another such school the American Academy for English-
Continental Congress rejected it.
brought the nations first school of higher education in Lancaster, Pennsylvania – primarily
conducted in German.
colonial languages declined- especially in the younger generation. Ethnic schools offered instruction in bilingual as well as English.
language legislation led by the American Protective Association (APA) was used against Catholic schools.
public and parochial schools gave instruction in German and English – per parents request.
Louisiana adopted French and English education.
Territory of New Mexico authorized Spanish-English bilingual education.
Protestant schools in Wisconsin and Illinois enacted proposals mandating English as the sole language used in education in all schools-public or private.
Congress passed first federal language law mandating an English speaking requirement for naturalization.
campaign launched to “Americanize” immigrants in Detroit through the English First rule.
US in World War I states restricted use of German language.
fifteen states legislated English as the basic language of instruction.
Texas legislature made it a criminal offense to teach in any language but English.
most public school systems in the US curtailed use of the German language.
Meyer v Nebraska court ruling strikes down laws restricting teaching a foreign language.
Congress handed down the strictest immigration laws in history banning German
English as a second language was developed to meet the needs of foreign diplomats and university students.
John Collier, Indian Commissioner, rescinded the English-only rule but it unofficially continued until 1940-1950.
Congress passed National Defense Education Act allowing for federal subsidies for
Texas implemented its first Bilingual Education legislation, which intended to improve communication and skills of non-English speaking students before the first grade.
Civil Rights movement activated programs against minorities in their struggles against
discrimination especially in public schools.
Dade County, Florida implemented a successful two-way bilingual program at Coral Way Elementary School.
US Congress passed the Title VI Civil
Rights Act prohibiting discrimination of race, color or national origin.