Language Learning

Year

1694

1694

Germans operated schools in Philadelphia in their native language with intermittent attempts of English instruction

1750

1750

Benjamin Franklin failed attempt of promoting a linguistic assimilation school where English was the medium for instruction.

1780

1780

John Adams tried to establish another such school the American Academy for English-
Continental Congress rejected it.

1787

1787

brought the nations first school of higher education in Lancaster, Pennsylvania – primarily
conducted in German.

1790-1830

1790 - 1830

colonial languages declined- especially in the younger generation. Ethnic schools offered instruction in bilingual as well as English.

1800s

1800 - 1899

language legislation led by the American Protective Association (APA) was used against Catholic schools.

1839

1839

public and parochial schools gave instruction in German and English – per parents request.

1847

1847

Louisiana adopted French and English education.

1848

1848

Territory of New Mexico authorized Spanish-English bilingual education.

1889

1889

Protestant schools in Wisconsin and Illinois enacted proposals mandating English as the sole language used in education in all schools-public or private.

1906

1906

Congress passed first federal language law mandating an English speaking requirement for naturalization.

1912

1912

campaign launched to “Americanize” immigrants in Detroit through the English First rule.

1917

1917

US in World War I states restricted use of German language.

1919

1919

fifteen states legislated English as the basic language of instruction.

Texas legislature made it a criminal offense to teach in any language but English.

most public school systems in the US curtailed use of the German language.

1923

1923

Meyer v Nebraska court ruling strikes down laws restricting teaching a foreign language.

1924

1924

Congress handed down the strictest immigration laws in history banning German
instruction.

1930

1930

English as a second language was developed to meet the needs of foreign diplomats and university students.

1934

1934

John Collier, Indian Commissioner, rescinded the English-only rule but it unofficially continued until 1940-1950.

1958

1958

Congress passed National Defense Education Act allowing for federal subsidies for
foreign-language instruction.

1959

1959

Texas implemented its first Bilingual Education legislation, which intended to improve communication and skills of non-English speaking students before the first grade.

1960

1960

Civil Rights movement activated programs against minorities in their struggles against
discrimination especially in public schools.

1963

1963

Dade County, Florida implemented a successful two-way bilingual program at Coral Way Elementary School.

1964

1964

US Congress passed the Title VI Civil
Rights Act prohibiting discrimination of race, color or national origin.