ECONOMY: Harrapian economy was based on farming because of the rich soil.
POLITICS: Candragupta Maurya ruled and drove out foreign forces and established the capital of his new Mauryan Empire.
STATUS OF WOMEN: only males could inherit land,women were not allowed to serve as priest or be educated
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: had one of the earliest forms of Literature, Vedas
RELIGION: Hinduism- belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma
Buddhism- belief in 4 noble truths and nirvana and eight fold path
In Sumer, the government was made up of kings and it was a monarchy. Sumer had many accomplishments. They created arches, a number system based on 60 so that you can tell time, and created the wagon wheel. They also crafted metal work, a sun dial, and charted constellations. Summerians were polytheistic and had 3,000 gods and goddesses. Their temples were built on ziggurats and they feared their gods. Royal and high class women could learn to read and write, but lower class women could not participate in politics or learn to read or write. They were not treated as equal as the men. The lower class of people were farmers and unskilled workers. The middle class worked as government officials, shopkeepers, artisans, and skilled workers. The upper class was then made of priests and merchants. Sumer is located near lower Mesopotamia.
Sargon was one of their major leaders who took over the Sumerian city states and set up the first empire. Akkad is located north east of Sumer. Akkad believed in more than one god.
GEOGRAPHY: The Aegean and Mediterranean Sea and the mountains acted as protection and barrier to invaders.
ECONOMY: The economy was different in each society. In Sparta, men were required to join the army and become soldiers. In Athens, people were merchants.
POLITICS: Sparta was an oligarchy which meant that they had power in only a few people. Athens had the democracy in which all people had a say in government.
STATUS OF WOMEN: Women were not treated well, but in Sparta they could leave the house by themselves. In Athens, they had to be assisted by a man to leave the house.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS : The Greek city-states came together and defeated the Persian army who was trying to take over Athens. The Persians were the strongest army and empire at the time.
RELIGION: The worshiped gods and goddesses and were scared of them. They believed that the gods interacted in their everyday lives.
One of the accomplishments was when Hammurabi, one of their most powerful rulers, conquered Sumer and Akkad which created a new Mesopotamian empire.
ECONOMY: The lower class worked on land owned by their masters. The middle class was artisans and merchants. The upper class owned land and had workers.
POLITICS: Each dynasty had a different ruler. One of the rulers, Qin unified China. He created a single money system and a similar law code throughout China. He also had a written language, built canals and roads, and built the Great Wall. He was a very cruel ruler though, he ordered burning of books from previous dynasties.
STATUS OF WOMEN: Women were treated badly. They had to go through foot-binding because it was considered to be attractive. They could not walk without assistance.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Built the great wall of China; the Terra Cotta Army, and silk
RELIGION: Confucianism- believed that man is good; we need guidance, promoted order;
Legalism:believes that man is evil, need a strong leader
Daoism: our individual responsibility to live in peace
GEOGRAPHY: created the Great Wall which protected them from intruders; was right on the Yellow Sea
The Hittites used iron which made their weapons stronger and cheaper to make.
The Phoenician's economy was based off of trade. Their geography was also based off of trade. Byblos, Tyre, and Phoenicia were ports on the eastern Mediterranean. They gave other
civilizations purple dye, glass, and lumber.
STATUS OF WOMEN: had more freedom then those in other civilizations
ACCOMPLISHMENT: use of iron weapons
ECONOMY: based off of conquering
RULERS: One of their most famous rulers was King David who established control over all the land that came to be called Israel and made Jerusalem their capital. Then King Solomon expanded the government and army and encouraged trade.
RELIGION: The Jews are monotheistic, and believe in one God, the Creator of the world.
WOMEN: Men could have may wives, but women could only have one husband, or they would be stoned.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: they ancient Israelites wrote the Torah
GEOGRAPHY: very mountainous, had a lot of deserts which served as barriers to invaders
ECONOMY: labor and crafting was the basis of their economy
POLITICS: Nebuchadnezzar made Babylonia leading state in western Asia
ECONOMY: patricians- rulers, held place in senate, wealthy land owners; plebeians- lower class who owned small farms, were merchants and artisans
POLITICS: had a republic which later turned into a dictatorship after two triumvirates; Julius Caesar was the first dictator who was later assasined by the Senate
STATUS OF WOMEN: were not allowed to participate in politicts, were treated badly
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: they were the most successful empire, and had conquered most places and had colonies in Africa, Asia, and parts of Europe
RELIGION: same religion as the Greeks, multiple gods and goddesses, but they just renamed them
GEOGRAPHY: Instead of Rome being directly on the Mediterranean Sea, they were on a river, which acted as a barrier, but still allowed them to interact and trade with the rest of the world.
RELIGION: Zoroastrianism- monotheistic
GEOGRAPHY: was on the Asia Minor, near Mediterranean... good trade
STATUS OF WOMEN: men could have many wives