HOA Timeline


Why Europe could be the leader of the new world

Great Famine


Europeans were overpopulating and did not have the agricultural prowess to sustain themselves

Began to starve -> leads to the Bubonic Plague

Black Death/Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1353

Trade ships between the Crimean ports and Europe brought rats and fleas

25-30% of European population died

100 years to recover

Lead to the Renaissance (end of serfdom/change of order)



Revolution against the church (Luther -> Protestantism)

Educational revolution (appreciation of pre-Christian knowledge)
Plato and Aristotle were studied

Gutenberg Typing Press


Made by Johannes Geinsfleisch

Moveable type printing

Previously handwritten, by scribes, on vellum

Explosion of books and education -> 1000 presses in Europe

Fall of Constantinople


Because of Mehmet "throat cutter" Dardanelles II

Laid seige on the city -> cut off sea route and laid seige by land

80,000 Ottomans vs. 7,000 Byzantine defenders


Things that happened with Spain

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella


Reconquista Begins


Drove the Moors from Grenada

One crown, one religion

Expulsion Edict


Grand Inquisitor -> Tomas de Torequemada

Autoda Fe - Isabella against conversos

100,000 Jews left/ 50,000 converted

3,000,000 Moors expelled

Treaty of Tordesillas


John II of Portugal protested against Columbus's discoveries

Almost lead to war with Spain

Pope Alexander VI of Spain created the Treaty

370 leagues West of the Azores

Divided the land between Spanish and Portuguese


Discovering the New World

Christopher Columbus

1488 - 1506

1488 - Approached Portugal
Was refused money/funding
1492 - 1st voyage: San Salvador, Hispaniola
Met Arawak and Caribe
Lost the Santa Maria
1493 - 2nd voyage: Explored Cuba
17 ships, 1200 men & priests
Left a colony of 500 men & brother
"Found islands Portugal had 'found' "
1496 - 3rd voyage: returned to Cuba
Settlement in disarray -> near civil war, syphillis
Asked for royal governor
Arrested for slavery and rape
1502 - Last voyage: Nicaragua and Honduras
Explored Panama canal
1506 - Died

Amerigo Vespucci

1495 - 1504

4 Voyages

Realized America is not the Japanese Archipelago

Credited for finding America by Martin Waldseemuller

Francisco Pizarro


Distant cousin of Cortez

From Panama -> followed stories of Inca Gold to South America

2 expeditions -> both failures

Killed in Spanish court

Ferdinand Magellan

1519 - 1522

Circumnavigation of Earth

5 ships

Rounds the Cape of South America -> dies in the Philippines

1 ship survives -> successful circumnavigation

Vasco de Balboa


Crossed Isthmus of Panama -> to Pacific

Hernan Cortes


Rumours of Gold from Cuba/Vera Cruz

Rumours of fertile valley of Central Mexico


Mexican Events

Aztec Empire

1300 - 1521

Capital: Tenochtitlan
Population: 5-6 million
on Lake Texcoco

Had pyramids

King Montezuma II - 9th Emperor


French and Indian War


War against French and Indians

Indians and French are allied against British (America is still colonies)

Fort Duquesne Skirmish


French Fort

Robert Dinwiddie sent George Washington to tell French that Fort was on English territory

Washington ambushed by a French/Indian scouting party -> skirmish

Washington accidentally kills French ambassador -> runs away and builds Fort Necessity

Caught by French -> allowed to live as long as he signs a document saying he personally killed the diplomat

Braddock Expedition


Edward Braddock - English man

Comes to French territory with 1500 red coats
George Washington (ally) comes with 800 colonist troops

Ambushed by French and Indians

Only 600 survive