South Carolina State History

Main

Midterm Studies

800 BC - 04/14/1865

What we have studied so far this year

Cultures

Eastern Woodland Indians

800 BC - 800 AD

The Eastern Woodland Indian Culture depended on the natural resources of the forests around them to survive. They often lived near lakes or streams. They were made up of many diverse groups, the most well known being the Iroquois and the Cherokee.

Source:
http://portfolio.educ.kent.edu/mcclellandr/zackthezipper/easternwoodland.htm

Trading

Triangle Slave Trade

1500 - 1800

The triangle slave trade involved three different regions: Great Britain, West Africa, and the Carribean Islands. Great Britain sent manufactured goods to West Africa, which then sent enslaved Africans to the Carribean Islands, which then sent raw materials to Great Britain.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangular_trade
http://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_43.html

Mercantilism

1500 - 1700

Mercantilism demands the "positive balance of trade". It is an economic style that has a purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state.

Sources:
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Mercantilism.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilism

Rice and Indigo Trade

1680 - 1890

Rice and Indigo were major cash crops in the Southern American states. The major demand for rice and indigo lead to the extreme need for slaves in the south. The civil war and a drought afterwards pretty much destroyed the business.

Source:
http://sciway3.net/proctor/state/sc_rice.html

Cotton Trade

1794

Since the cotton gin was invented, the cotton trade was a big business. Because of how easy it was to get the seeds out of cotton balls, plantation owners began to grow more and more to be made into material for clothing.

Source:
http://www.civilwarhome.com/kingcotton.htm

Embargo Act

12/22/1807 - 03/01/1809

The Embargo Act was a law created by President Thomas Jefferson in 1807 that was created to try and force Great Britain and France out of war during the Napoleonic Wars. It was designed to keep American ships from trading with the battling nations. It failed because American merchants snuck out of the country to trade, and the act was repealed in 1809, near the end of Jefferson's presidency.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embargo_Act_of_1807

Settlements

San Miguel de Gualdape

10/08/1526 - 1527

San Miguel de Gualdape was the first European settlement in what is now the United States. The founder, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, built the colony in 1526 along the Gualdape river under a patent from Charles V.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Miguel_de_Gualdape

13 English Colonies

1607 - 1732

The 13 English colonies were British colonies that would eventually become the first 13 states of America. The first colony, Virginia, was founded in 1607 with 12 more colonies following all the way up to Georgia in 1732.

Source:
http://americanhistory.about.com/library/charts/blcolonial13.htm

Royal Colony

1607 - 1732

A royal colony was a colony that stayed under royal rule. Although some states, like the original proprietary states, were not originally royal colonies, all of the 13 English colonies were eventually under royal rule.

Source:
8-1 document

Proprietary Colony

1632 - 1732

A proprietary colony is a colony that is ruled by one or more of its citizens, usually land owners. Originally proprietary colonies in the Americas include Maryland, Pennsylvania, Deleware, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. All of these colonies, though, eventually became royal colonies.

Source:
8-1 document

Way of Life

Plantation System

1607 - 1865

The system of splitting land into smaller pieces owned by private owners is known as the plantation system. It relied on slaves to do the work for the owners, so when the Civil War ended in 1865 and all slaves were emancipated, the system pretty much fell apart.

Source:
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASplantation.htm

Cotton Gin

1794

The cotton gin was a machine invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. It made it easier to clean cotton, so it soon became a cash crop. Although Whitney invented the machine to get rid of slavery, owners ironically began purcahsing more slaves to try and sell more of the crop.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton_gin

Slavery

Slave Codes

1650 - 1865

Slave codes were state-wide guidelines of status of slaves and rules for their masters. These laws provided the slave owners with absolute power over their slaves.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_codes

Stono Rebellion

09/09/1739 - 09/10/1739

The Stono Rebellion was started by a slave named Jemmy. He gathered up 60-100 other slaves to help him revolt near the Stono River, 20 miles southwest of Charlestown. Eventually the militia caught up with them and captured the revolters, most of which were then executed.

Sources:
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_stono_1.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stono_Rebellion

3/5 Compromise

1787 - 1865

The purpose of the 3/5 Compromise between the north and the south was that all slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of taxation and representation. This law was kept until the end of the Civil War in 1865 when all slaves were emancipated.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-Fifths_Compromise
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War

Denmark Vesey Plot

07/14/1822 - 07/15/1822

The Denmark Vesey Plot was a slave revolt plan formed by the free african Denmark Vesey to take place on Bastille Day (July 14). Word leaked out and Charleston authorities arrested Vesey and his associated and executed them.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark_Vesey

Robert Smalls

04/05/1839 - 02/23/1915

Robert Smalls was a man, born a slave, who taught himself to read and write. During the civil war, he stowed himself, his family, and several other slaves on a ship that was Union bound. It was captured by Union authorities and everyone was set free.

Source:
http://www.nndb.com/people/858/000137447/

Dred Scott Decision

03/06/1857 - 03/07/1857

The Dred Scott Decision involved a Supreme Court case in which a slave claimed he was free because his owner lived with hime in the free state of Illinios and territory where slavery was forbidden by the Missouri Compromise. The Supreme Court decided that Congress had no right to keep slavery out of territories.

Source:
http://americancivilwar.com/colored/dred_scott.html

War

Yemassee War

1715 - 1717

The Yemassee (also spelled Yamassee) War was a conflict between colonial South Carolina and various Native American tribes, including the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, and Cheraw. The tides turning in 1716 when the Cherokee sided with the colonists and helped them defeat the other tribes.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamasee_War

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

The French and Indian War was the American name for the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. It was mainly fought between colonial France and colonial Britain, and quickly escalated to the mother countries. In the end, Britain became the dominet colonial power in the west

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_War

Cherokee War

1758 - 1761

The Cherokee War was a conflict between the British forces in North America and the Cherokee Indian tribes during the French and Indian War. They had been allies at the beginning of the war, but suspected betrayal from each other. The British defeated the Cherokee and made them sign a peace treaty.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Cherokee_War

Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

The Revolutionary War was the fight for independence between the United States and their allies (France, Netherlands, Spain) and Great Britain. In a way, the Revolutionary War was a World War. The result was independance for the US and mixed results for their allies.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War

Battle of Camden

08/16/1780 - 08/17/1780

The Battle of Camden was a major British victory in the Revolutionary War. Though 11 men went missing, the British killed and wounded 900 Americans and captured 1,000.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Camden

Battle of King's Mountain

10/07/1780 - 10/08/1780

The Battle of King's Mountain was a resounding American victory against loyalist forces near the boarder of South Carolina and North Carolina. This battle is considered the turning point of the war in the South.

Source:
http://www.britishbattles.com/kings-mountain.htm

Battle of Cowpens

01/17/1781 - 01/18/1781

The Battle of Cowpens was a decisive American victory in the Revolutionary War. The British lost over 4 times as many men in this battle than the Americans. When the result was reported, Lord Cornwallis stick his sword in the ground and leaned on it until the blade snapped.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cowpens

Battle of Eutaw Springs

09/08/1781 - 09/09/1781

The Battle of Eutaw Springs was the last major engagement of war in the Carolinas in the Revolutionary War. It was a British tactical victory, but lead to an American strategic advantage.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Eutaw_Springs

War of 1812

06/18/1812 - 02/18/1815

The War of 1812 was a conflict between the new United States and Great Britain over issues unsettled by the Revolutionary War. One battle, known as the Battle of Baltimore, was the inspiration for the national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_1812

William T. Sherman

02/08/1820 - 02/14/1891

William T. Sherman was the founder of total war, which was a strategy used by the Union forces during the civil war. He was a soldier, businessman, educator, and author.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman

Total War

1850

Total war was a type of warfare like none other. There is less difference between a soldier and a civilian, if any at all. Total war will kill anyone. It was designed to make the soldiers think about their families and be discouraged to fight as well as they could.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_war

Civil War

1861 - 1865

The civil war was the war fought between the two sides of America: The Union and The Confederates. It began when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC.

Source:
My personal knowledge

Fort Sumter

04/12/1861 - 04/14/1861

The Battle of Fort Sumter was a battle fought in Charleston, SC that signaled the beginning of the Civil War. The South Carolina Confederates attacked the Union Fort Sumter, afraid of an attack from the Union.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Sumter

Port Royal

11/03/1861 - 11/07/1861

The Battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious battles in the American Civil War. Thanks to the battle, the Union took Port Royal Sound.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Port_Royal

Acts

Sugar Act

1764 - 1775

The Sugar Act was a law passed by Parliament that put taxes on sugar, wine, and other imported things. This made the colonist very upset, as they had to pay more for imported things. They money was also going to force the colonies to only trade with Great Britain, which would cost them a lot of money.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War
http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312848/suact.htm

Stamp Act

1765 - 03/18/1766

The Stamp Act was a law passed by Parliament that put British stamps on any printed document. Colonists were unhappy and held protests against the Act, and Great Britain repealed it on March 18, 1766.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamp_Act_1765

Tea Act

05/10/1773 - 1775

The Tea Act was a law passed by Parliament that was tying to help the East India Company by selling bargain priced tea. The colonist took this as an attempt to persuade them towards favor for taxes, and the act sparked the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution.

Source:
http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/teaact.htm

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

The Kansas-Nebraska Act was the act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska in 1854. It also lead to Popular Sovereignty, which was a way for people to vote where or not slaves should be allowed in territories.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas–Nebraska_Act

Groups

Sons of Liberty

1765 - 1783

The Sons of Liberty was the group responsible for some of the Stamp Act protests and the Boston Tea Party. Though it is often speculated, John and Samuel Adams were not actually in the Sons of Liberty, only closely associated with them.

Source:
http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/sons.htm

Movements

Regulator Movement

1765 - 1771

The Regulator Movement was an uprising in North and South Carolina to overturn corrupt colonial officials. Though it was unsuccessful, some historians consider it a catalyst to the Revolutionary War.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Regulation

Abolitionist Movement

1830

The goal of the Abolitionist Movement was the emancipation of all slaves. The abolitionists also wanted to end racial discrimination and segregation.

Source:
http://www.history.com/topics/abolitionist-movement

Documents

South Carolina Constitution of 1776

03/26/1776

The South Carolina Constitution of 1776 was a document that declared South Carolina's independence from Great Britain in 1776. This action was taken 4 months before the Declaration of Independence and 5 months before the state even learned about the declaration.

Source:
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/south-carolina-approves-new-constitution

Declaration of Independance

06/11/1776 - 07/04/1776

The Declaration of Independence was the document that declared the US independent from Great Britain. It was drafted by Thomas Jefferson from June 11-28 and signed by the new Congress on July 4.

Source:
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html

Articles of Confederation

1781 - 03/04/1789

The Articles of Confederation was the first United States Constitution. It created strong state government, but lacked the strong central government needed for the nation, and was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation

Constitution

05/14/1787

The Constitution was the revised version of the Articles of Confederation. It gave more power to the federal government and less to the states'.

Source:
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html

Compromises

Commerce Compromise

1787

The Commerce Compromise was the agreement in the Constitutional Convention on how the federal government would control commerce. It involved Import Taxes, Taxes on Slaves, and Treaty Ratification.

Source:
http://www.ehow.com/facts_7560850_commerce-compromise.html

Great Compromise

07/16/1787

The Great Compromise decided the way that the states would be represented in the Legislative Branch (Congress). Each state would have two senators in the Senate who would work for six years, and each would send an amount of representatives to the House of Representatives who would work for two years. The number of representatives in the House depended on the states' population.

Source:
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/A_Great_Compromise.htm

Disobedience

Nullification Controversy

1832

The Nullification Controversy was the crisis caused by South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification under president Andrew Jackson. It stated that the protective tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and South Carolina wasn't going to follow them.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nullification_Crisis

Creation of the Confederate States of America

1861 - 1865

The Confederate States of America was a government set up by the seceded states just before and throughout the civil war. Started by South Carolina, the country consisted of eleven states that seceded from the union.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America

Secessionist

1861 - 1865

A secessionist is a person or group who seceds from something. The first secessionist from the US was South Carolina.

Source:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/secessionist

Presidents

Election of 1860

1860

The Election of 1860 was between Abraham Lincoln, John Bell, Stephan A. Douglas and John C. Breckinridge. The winner was Abraham Lincoln, who would change America forever.

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1860

Lincoln's Assassination

04/14/1865 - 04/15/1865

Lincoln's Assassination was conducted by John Wilkes Booth in the middle of the play Our American Cousin at Forf's Theatre. While Secretary of State William H. Seward and Vice President Andrew Johnson were also targeted, Seward was only injured and Andrew Johnson's would-be assassin chickened-out and fled Washington.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Abraham_Lincoln
Washington D.C. Trip