Euro Timeline up to Mid 19th Century

Laurel Robbins



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution / Enlightment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romaniticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


Under this, France stays Catholic as long as they recognize the Pope's power. Done by Francis I.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She had three sons who were unfit to rule so she ruled as regent. She was responsible for the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and therefore an unsuccessful politique.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


This was when Hugenots were killed by the order of Catherine de Medici. The pope was so happy and rewarded the messenger with a bag full of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Won the War of the Three Henries. "Paris is well worth a mass." Good PR move. The Edict of Nantes allowed Hugenots to practice their religion, making him a politique. He was killed by stab wounds.

Louis XIII / Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII (1610 - 1643) and the man behind the power who actually did everything, Richelieu (1624 - 1642). Richelieu had all the power because Louis XIII was pretty much just a partier. The French Academy was created for smart people and this helped standardize the French dictionary. He (as in Richelieu) considered the nobles a threat to power. He didn't like the Hapsburgs, even though they were Catholic too. He considered the Hugenots a threat to Catholocism.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Louis XIII (but really Richelieu) sent the troops to fight the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Revoked the Edict of Nantes, so he wasn't a fan of the Hugenots. "I am the state" He was an absolute monarch because he had everyone eating out of the palm of his hand. He wanted this power because as a child he had been scared by the Fronde. He had an impressive pair of shins. He spent money on frivolous things. He had the nobles living at the Palace of Versailles so that they would be happy and not try to overtake him for the throne. Built the Palace of Versailles in Baroque style but decorated it with Rococo so it is all pastel-ish and girly-ish.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

This is when Carlos II left Spain to France, so they tried to create Spance which didn't fly too well with everyone. The War of Spanish Succession was won by Spain and ended with the Treaty of Utrech which said that Spance could never exist. COME ON, GIVE SPANCE A CHANCE!

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

His famous mistress was Madame du Pompodour who had a salon. His art style was Rococo.



His book, "Spirit of Laws" was published in 1748. He said the government should consist of three branches. In favor of a constitutional monarchy?

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria versus Prussia on continent fighting over territory. Off continent Austria's allies (France and Russia) versus Prussia's ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763) no major changes in Europe. Off continent, Britain gets France's colonies in North America.



His book, "Candide" was published in 1759. He said "crush the thing" refering to the Church. He believed strongly in free speech saying, "I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."



His book, "Social Contract" was published in 1762. This was about how the government should be ruled by the people. His book, "Emile" was published in 1762. This was his education theory that children should recieve no formal education that they should learn by exploring and experience. This went against the Enlightenment because it was based more on impulse then logic.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was timid and a shlumpy guy. His wife was the Austrian princess, Marie Antoinette. The French hated her because she was from Austria, she didn't produce an heir for seven years, and she spent a ton of money. Louis XVI was executed on the charges of treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

The French helped the Americans because, of course, being France they hated the British. The French got into bad debt.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abbé Sieyès wrote "What is the Third Estate?" Instigator of the CoupDd'état of 18 Brumaire (which put Napoleon in power). The Assignats was the money issued by the National Assembly during the French Revolution. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was when the French Roman Catholic Church came under the power of the French Government. All clergy members had to take an oath swearing allegiance to France. The Constitution of 1791 (Constitutional Monarchy) was when the National Assembly created a Constitution that called for popular soverignty.

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

(interesting note, France is currently on their 5th Republic). The National Convention was after the National Assembly and before the Directory. The Committee of Public Safety was during the Reign of Terror. Its members' job was to make sure no one was speaking or acting out against the Revolution. The Reign of Terror was during the French Revolution when tons of people were executed with the guillotine. Thermidorian Reaction was the people's reaction to the death of Robespiere. Basically a revolt.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

The Directory was after the Convention and before the Consulate. Ended by the coup d'etete 18.


1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 brought Catholicism back into France (1804ish). The Napoleonic Code was and enlightened code because people had equal standing under the law. The Continental System was aimed against England (1806ish) so no one would trade with them. Caused black market and GB's economy increased. 3 Parts of his empire? Peninsular War was the "Spanish Ulcer" because Napoleon couldn't take them over and they just sucked all of his resources from him. The Invasion of Russia was an epic fail and tons of soldiers died. Hundred Days was when Napoleon was on Elba and not in power, he escaped (115) Waterloo was just embarrassing for Napoleon.


1814 - 1824

Louis 16's brother. Charter of 1814 was a constitution that France actually followed, good call France.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820
  1. Redraw the map
  2. Restore monarchs
  3. war reparations France was represented by Tallyrand. France was treated as they were, a losing nation.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Louis 18's son. The July Ordinances were revolts AGAIN by the people. in july.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. Just like Les Mes, the people barricaded the streets of Paris.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the Citizen King. His reign was known as the

February Rebellions


Against Louis Phillipe Another kind of goverment took over called provisional government which eventually led to a different government.

Provisional Government


March - May. After the February Revolt, this is the government that took over. Louis Blanc called for many reforms.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Holy Roman Empire



Significant because he created the printing press. Information spread easier, reading and writing became important. Visuals/sketches for illiterate people.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

He ruled the Holy Roman Empire (Dad's side) as well as Spain (Mom's side), since all moarchs back then married each other, Charles V inherited a bunch of land and power. When he retired to a monastary, he left Spain to his son (Phillip) and HRE to his brother (Ferdinand).

Diet of Worms


This was when Charles V called Luther to recant his "sins" for speaking out against Catholicism. Luther refused to do so and therefore Charles V issued the Edict of Worms. After the arrest warrant was issued, Frederick the Wise hid Luther so that he wouldn't be arrested.

German Peasants Revolt


This is when peasants took Luther's belief of the Priesthood of All Believers and applied it to government. They were upset that they were all seen equally in the eyes of God but not in the eyes of society or the law. Luther didn't not support this movement.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

This is where the Catholic Church got together and they fixed most of their flaws exposed by Luther. Luther said he was leaving the Catholic Church because clergy mebers were corrupt, unfair, and uneducated (along with other complaints in his 95 Thesis, including the sale of indulgences). The church created seminars for education, stoppped the sale of indulgences, and re organized the structure of the Catholic Church.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant Trade League versus the Catholic Princes. Ends in the Peace of Augsburg which Charles V signs becuase he needed their help against the Ottomans.

Peace of Augsburg


Ended the Schmalkaldic War. It was signed by Charles V becuase he needed the Protestant Trade League's help in fighting the Ottomans. "Cuius regio, Euius religio" (whoever's region, his religion...something like that)

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years War was the Protestants and Catholics. Everyone versus the Hapsburgs. Was started with the Defenstration of Prague (some guy got tossed out the window). France joined because they wanted to lessent he power of the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia


You could be Calvanist, Catholic, or Lutheran. Recognized the independence of the Dutch.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Three Goals
1. Balance power
2. War reparations
3. Restore monarchs
Poland was divided between Russia & Prussia. The Concert of Europe was when the representatives contiuned to meet after the Congree of Vienna.

Martin Luther


He believed in salvation through faith, unlike the Catholic church who believed you had to get baptized and do communion and stuff. The Priesthood of All Believers was that everyone was the same to God, there was no heirical scale when it came to who was the closest to God. Although he was a religious radical, he was a political conservative. When the peasants took his theory on the Priesthood of All Believers and applied it to social scales, he told them they were wrong and that he didn't mean for the Priesthood of All Believers to be applied to politics.




Didn't really start in 1683 btw. This was a labor tax.

Battle of Vienna


Ottomans invaded Vienna, Austria and Jan Sobieski (Polish) came to save the day.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Marie Theresa's dad created the Pragmatic Sanction combined all the Hapsburg lands and made it so that his daughter could inherit his position.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Her enlightened reforms include reducing the robot, called for better treatment of serfs.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria versus Prussia. Prussia refused to recognize Marie Theresa as ruler, took Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria versus Prussia on continent fighting over territory. Off continent Austria’s allies (France and Russia) versus Prussia’s ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763) no major changes in Europe. Off continent, Britain gets France’s colonies in North America.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

His mother was Marie Theresa. His enlightened reforms include abolishing serfdom and accepted Jews. When his son succeeded him, his reforms didn't stay because they were too radical.

Vienna for the Center for European Music


Not really 1815, this is just when the Congress of Vienna started which is where the Vieneese Waltz was created. A very scandalous dance that could only be performed by married couples because of the daring heel exposure.


1821 - 1848

In office from 1821-1848. 1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821-1835) and Ferdinand I (1835-1848) The Metternich System was how he helped Austria be an influential power. The Carlsbad Decrees were used to get Prussian support. 2 things he hates?

1848 Revolts


The people wanted to make a statement against their government. They put barricades up in the streets of Paris, they were the goverment. Like Les Mes.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Known as the "Soldier King" because he had one of the greatest armies in Europe, with very tall soldiers called the Potsdam Giants.

War of Austrian Sucession

1740 - 1748

Austria versus Prussia. Prussia refused to recognize Marie Theresa as ruler, took Silesia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

His enlightened reforms include being religiously tolerant. He was a correspondent to Voltaire. He didn't recognize Marie Theresa as ruler even though her father, Joseph II created the Pragmatic Sanction ensuring her as ruler.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria versus Prussia on continent fighting over territory. Off continent Austria’s allies (France and Russia) versus Prussia’s ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763) no major changes in Europe. Off continent, Britain gets France’s colonies in North America.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He was an early German romantic and came up with "Sturm und Drang", which was a Romantic literature movement in Germany. It means "storm and stress" and led the way to strong German nationalism and he was a supporter for unifying Germany.

Großdeutsch vs. Kleindeutsch


Not really the 1820s, just basically the early 19th century. Those who were in favor of Großdeutsch wanted to combine Austria with other German-speaking countries to create a "big Germany." Those in favor of Kleindeutsch wanted Austria separate, hence "small Germany"

George Friderick Hegel


Published "Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences." Believed that history was shaped by negative events, such as war.

Frankfurt Assembly


The first group of elected officials in the whole Germany. Offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV (crazy guy). He said that he would not because it was handed to him by the people, not the princes.


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The Early Renaissance began in Florence. The reason it began in Italy was because the Medici family lived there and funded many artists and buildings. The Renaissance caught on so fast because the city states were very competitive and all wanted to be better than the others.


1450 - 1500

(Didn't really happen 1450-1500, basically just the Renaissance). Humanism was the separation of man, where they were looked at as individuals instead of one whole.

Political Organization of Italy

1450 - 1500

(Not really 1450-1500) Italy was divided into city states. There were five main city states in the early Renaissance period of Italy. They include The Papal States, Naples, and three others I can't remember.

Presitge of Florence

1460 - 1469

The Medici family ruled Florence because they had a lot of wealth and power.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

His dad was Pope Alexander VI. Yes, even though Popes weren't supposed to have kids, and this wasn't the only thing Pope Alexander VI did wrong...
Cesare Borgia was the hero of Machiavelli's The Prince because he was a ruler who didn't let morals effect his decisions as a leader.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruled Florence. He was a big patron of the arts.

Friar Saonarola

1494 - 1498

He was Catholic guy who got the Medicis kicked out of Florence. He burned a lot of books. SInce the Medicis were gone, the arts suffered since there was no one to fund them. He was eventually executed.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

High Renaissance happened in Rome, Italy because the Popes funded a lot of art.



1513 was the year his book, "The Prince" was published. The Prince is about whether is it better "to be loved or feared." The hero of this book was Cesare Borgia because he ruled without letting morals effect his decisions as a leader.

End of the Renaissance


The Renaissance ended because Charles V invaded Italy and since they weren't really unified they couldn't band together to defend themselves.



1528 was when his book, "The Courtier" was published. It was describing the perfect "Renaissance Man" who is pretty much good at everything. The Renaissance Man can ride, read, is well spoken, well educated, and well mannered.



His book, "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" Galileo proves that Copernicus was right. He proved that the Earth couldn't possibly be the center of the universe, the Sun was. He was forced to come before a group and recant.

Cesare Beccaria


His book, "On Crime and Punishment" was published 1764. It said that prisoners shouldn't be tortured and should be treated better and more fairly.


1800 - 1850

(Not really these dates, just somewhere in the first half of the 19th century). This is the Italian word for "unification." The three groups were:
1. Young Italy - wanted democracy
2. Sardinia - wanted a constitutional monarchy
3. Neo Guelis - wanted a theocracy

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Three Goals:
1. War reparations
2. Restore monarchs
3. Balance of Power
Italy remained divided and part of it was given to Austria.

Giuseppe Mazzini


He led the "Young Italy." This group wanted a democratic government.

Giuseppe Mazzini


He led the "Young Italy." This group wanted a democratic government.



The unification movements of 1848 were unsuccessful the groups couldn't unify.