Untitled timeline



Concordat of Bologna

01/01/1516 - 12/31/1516

Made France officially Catholic

Catherine de Medici

01/01/1559 - 12/31/1589

Ruled for her sons. Wanted to be a politique but failed due to St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. She was hardcore Catholic

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1/1/1572 - 12/31/1572

Massacre of Huguenots ordered by Catherine de Medici because they weren't Catholic. The Pope laughed and gave the messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1/1/1589 - 12/31/1610

Paris is well worth a mass. Issued Edict of Nantes. Was Politique because he allowed Huguenots live in France. Died when he got stabbed multiple times by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII/Richelieu

12/1/1610 - 12/1/1643

Richelieu ruled during his reign. He made French Academy. Controlled the Nobles, Fought Hapsburgs and limited Huguenot power


12/1/1643 - 12/1/1715

I am the State. Went to random Wars, killed Huguenots, Kept Nobles at Versailles.

War of Spanish Succession

1/1/1702 - 12/31/1713

All other countries were against Spain and France Uniting. Spance lost!

Louis XV

12/1/1715 - 12/1/1774

Madame de Pompodore. Rococo


1/1/1748 - 12/31/1759

I will defend your right to say it. Church is stupid


1/1/1748 - 12/31/1748

Separation of powers

Seven Years War

1/1/1756 - 12/31/1763

Austria v Prussia.
Austrias allies: FRance and Russia
Prussias allies:Britain
Treaty of Paris 1763


1/1/1762 - 12/31/1762

General will most important. People/ children learn through experience.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Posh. Marie Antoinette spent flipping great wads of cash. Executed for treason against revolution

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped americans to weaken british. Bankrupted France

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention became 1st republic. CoPS kill "enemies of the revolutions" and thermidorian reaction was a revolt against the revolutions excessive killings

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

Concordat gave napoleon more power. Napoleonic was a govt code that was very liberal. Restricted trade, aimed against britain. Parts were: France, satellite states and those part of continental system. Peninsular war agianst span. SPanish ulcer. Invasion of russia was a disaster. After first exile napoleon returned for hundred days. Finally defeated at Waterloo

Charles X

1814 - 1830

Conservative. July ordinances limited peoples rights. People revolted


1814 - 1824

Grandson of Louis XV. Charter of 1814- Constitution that was created that limited power of French Monarchy

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of Power, War Reparations and Return of Conservative Monarchs. Talleyrand Treated well in first and worse in second

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. Caused his abdication

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

called the July King and his reign was known as the “July Monarchy or the July Monarchy. How was he different? Ignored the demands of people and that caused the February rebellion

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Republic, Napoleon the third was prez, All males can vote. SOCIALISM

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe

Provisional Government


Poverty, turns into Socialism

Holy Roman Empire


1/1/1465 - 12/31/1465

Invented the printing press


1/1/1517 - 12/31/1517

Said people were saved through their faith to god. Everyone should be able to read the bible. Conservative on government

Charles V

1/1/1519 - 12/31/1556

The Universal Monarch. Inherited Land. Gave his land to son and brother

Diet of Worms

1/1/1521 - 12/31/1521

Attempt to make Luther recant. Luther doesn't recant and is named a heretic

German Peasants Revolt

1/1/1525 - 12/31/1525

Peasants applied Luthers beliefs on religion to social/govt issues. Luther reacted strongly against the revolt because he was a social conservative

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant trade league vs. Catholic Princes. Ended in Peace of Augsburg

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Everyone vs. HRE. You can be Catholic, Lutheran or Calvinist. Dutch are independent. France Was extremely anti HRE

Peace of Westaphalia

1/1/1648 - 12/31/1648

Netherlands Free. Can be Catholic, Lutheran or Calvinist

Peace of Augsburg

1/1/1648 - 12/31/1648

You can be Catholic or Lutheran. Cuius regies, ehius regio

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of Power, War Reparations and Return of Conservative Monarchs


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Soldier king due to Potsdam Giant.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

True Enlightened despot. Made many refroms

War of Austrian Sucession

1740 - 1748

Maria Teresa and everyone vs everyone else. MT won and got Silesia

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

didnt endorse pragmatic sanction. Was enlightened reformer

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mother was Maria Theresa. One of the greatest enlightened despots. Josephism

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

German philosopher

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate



1821 - 1848

Concert of Europe. Balance of power after Cong of Vienna. Hates Liberals. Carlsbad decree limits peoples power, adds censorship.

George Friederick Hegel


Philosopher. History is conflict

Frankfurt Assembly


First Freely elected Parliament in Germany. Wanted Friedrich Wilhelm IV. FW4 wouldnt accept

1848 Revolts


People wanted liberalism such as the stuff Napoleon gave them.


Political Organization of Italy

1450 - 1500

Formed into City States

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500


Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1470

Lorenzo de Medici, Il magnifico. Had flipping great wads of cash



Humans have choices in life

Caesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Was an Italian General who tried to unify Italy. Admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruler of Florence


1494 - 1498

Threw Medici out of Florence. Tried to start theocracy. Hated Alexander IV

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527


Machiavelli & The Prince


Be ruthless



Be a well rounded man. Renaissance Man



He said the earth revolved around the sun

Caesare Beccaria


No torture or death penalty

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Re-establishment of monarchs. Pay war reparations. Balance of Power



Unification of Italy. Young Italy, Sardinians and Neo Guelfs



Groups could not unify themselves

Guiseppi Mazzini


Lead young italy. Wanted to unify