European History Timeline

France

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Concordat of Bologna

1516

An agreement between France's King Francis I and the Catholic Pope Leo X. This maintained France's Catholic religion, which allowed the pope to receive all of the Catholic income in France.

Reformation

1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Queen of France who was unsuccessful at being a politique.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

King Charles IX, influenced by his mother, ordered the assassinations of Huguenot leaders in Paris. The Pope was so happy he gave the messenger a bag of coins.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass". Edict of Nantes - granted the Huguenots some rights in France. Was a good politique. Was assassinated by a crazy Catholic with a dagger.

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends French troops because he hates the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, Frances is the strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state." He spent all of his money on Versailles and did not think twice about spending money. Revokes the Edict of Nantes and wants one church and one faith in his country. He held parties and made nobles live in Versailles so that he could control them. Moves Huguenots into dense populations.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour. The art style was Rococo.

Montesquieu

1748

Published the Spirit of Laws in 1748. Believed there should be three separate branches of government, each keeping checks on the others.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Great Britain, Prussia, and Portugal vs. France, Spain, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. France came out the loser in the Treaty of Paris, having to give up territories and pay war reparations.

Voltaire

1758

Believe people had the natural right to make use of their tongues. He said "I may not agree with what you say, but I will fight to the death your right to say it." Also believe in freedom of religion.

Rousseau

1762

Wrote the Social Contract and Emile. Rousseau worked to educate people by developing their moral senses. NEED MORE HEREflkjfgnsk;ggvfbgfkljbgkfjgkfgv

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Was a timid leader without the flashiness of the usual French kings. Marie Antoinette was his wife and the French people hated her because she "couldnt produce an heir to the throne". Louis XVI eventually was run off the throne by the revolting French people, put on trial, and execute. He was charged with treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

The French helped in this war, basically, because they hated the English and didn't want them to win the war. This put France into a financial crisis that affected the nation drastically.

National Assembly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes wrote the pamphlet What is The Third Estate? and was the instigator of the coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire. Assignat was the type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution. Civil Const of the Clergy was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. The Constriction of 1791

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

First French Republic

1792 - 1795

The National Convention was a body of people comprised of the constitutional and legislative assembly. The Committe of Public Safety was established by the NC to protect the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions. The death toll reached tens of thousands. The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against perceived excesses of the Reign of Terror.

Directory

1795 - 1799

The Directory was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. (Oligarchy)

Napoleon

1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII which solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status. ADD THE REST DAAAAAAAAAWG

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

Louis XVI's brother. The Charter of 1804 was very important.

Reaction/Romanticism

1815 - 1850

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Reparations for wars, return Monarchs to power, and balance of power. France's representative was Talleyrand and they were treated poorly with lots of punishment.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. Very conservative. July Ordinances were a series of decrees set forth by Charles X. These affected the people in many negative ways.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

July Revolutions

1830

Revolutions against Charles X. Protests and demonstrations were followed by three days of fighting. The people barricaded themselves in the streets.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

February Revolt

1848

June Days

1848

Provisional Government

1948

Holy Roman Empire

Gutenberg

1465

Created the printing press. Forever changed the world!!!!!!

Luther

1517

Posted the 95 Theses which forever changed religion. Believed in salvation through faith which means that you put everything in God's hands in hope that he will save you. Priesthood of all believers is a doctrinal responsibility or right to preach and expound the Christian faith. Believed that church and state should be separate.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Nicknamed the "Universal Monarch". He inherited Spain from his grandparents Ferdinand and Isabella and he inherited the Holy Roman empire from his paternal grandfather Maximilian. When he retired, he gave Spain to his son and HRE to his brother.

Diet of Worms

1521

The Diet of Worms was an assembly, or meeting, which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. Luther would not recant and fled into hiding. Basically accomplished nothing.

German Peasants Revolt

1525

This was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe. Luther's start to the reformation made the peasants want to revolt. Luther took a middle road, supporting them in some areas, but also criticizing them in others.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It reformed parts of the Catholic church that were being spotlighted by new Protestants. It was fairly successful, but it was even more necessary.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

War fought between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Charles V won and the Peace of Augsburg was issued.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanently within the Holy Roman Empire.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

War fought between the Protestant States and the Catholic states. Was fought over religion. France wanted to exert its power against the weaker German states that bordered them.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

A series of peace treaties signed that ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

A confederation of client states of the First French.
Empire.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Confederation_of_the_Rhine_(1812).svg

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

A conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Metternich, and held in Vienna. Three goals: To return monarchs to power, get reparations for the war, and to balance power.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

The loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map-GermanConfederation.svg

Austria

Battle of Vienna

1638

The Ottoman Empire besieged Vienna, leading to this battle. The Kingdom of Poland played a major role in the battle and helped the HRE and Polish/Lithuanians win.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Ruler of the HRE who issued Pragmatic Sanction to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Daughter of Charles VI who was allowed to take the thrown because of the Pragmatic Sanction. She strived to do what she thought best for her people. Reformed according to this goal.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg. Austria, Britain, and the Netherlands fought against Prussia, France, and Spain. Prussia and the Hapsburg monarchs struggled to occupy the region of Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Great Britain, Prussia, and Portugal vs. France, Spain, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. France came out the loser in the Treaty of Paris, having to give up territories and pay war reparations.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Oldest son of Maria Theresa and brother of Marie Antoinette. Legislated a series of drastic reforms to remodel Austria in the form of the ideal Enlightened state.

Robot

1820

Peasants were required to work 3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord.

Metternich

1821 - 1848

An German politician and statesman. Established the Metternich System which was an effort to keep the peace in Europe after a time of many wars. The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation. The Concert of Europe was the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the outbreak of World War I. Dislike liberalism and nationalism.

1848 Revolts

1848

Prussia

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Called the "Soldier King" because of his fondness for military display, leading to his special efforts to hire the tallest men he could find in all of Europe for a special regiment nicknamed the Potsdam Giants.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa’s succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg. Austria, Britain, and the Netherlands fought against Prussia, France, and Spain. Prussia and the Hapsburg monarchs struggled to occupy the region of Silesia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Great Britain, Prussia, and Portugal vs. France, Spain, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. France came out the loser in the Treaty of Paris, having to give up territories and pay war reparations.

Johann Herder

1780 - 1790

Was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. Criticized Enlightenment ideas and shaped Europe's thoughts on the Enlightenment.

Georg Friedrich Hegel

1830

A German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history.

Frankfurt Assembly

1848

This was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV refused to accept the office of emperor when it was offered to him.

Italy

Prestige of Florence

1450

The Medici family ruled and were the highest of the upper class. Rich as can be. Had the most famous artists do works for them. Florence had the Duomo. It was where the Renaissance was started and was at its peak.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The early Renaissance began in Florence, Italy. It began one of the most significant time periods in European history.

Political Organization of Italy

1450 - 1860

Before 1860 Italy was not the country we know now but a group of kingdoms governed by different Royal Families.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Was an Italian nobleman, politician, and cardinal and was the son of Pope Alexander VI. Loved Machiavelli because of his thoughts on how countries should be ruled an run.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

An Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. Part of the Medici family, wealthy "rulers" of Florence.

Friar Savanarola

1494 - 1498

An Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

The period where the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance were at their peak and looking greeeaaaaat. Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael were all doing their best work. The High Renaissance was based in Rome.

Machiavelli

1513

Machiavelli wrote The Prince, which is a practical guide to ruling. Machiavelli emphasized the need for realism, as opposed to idealism.

Castiglione

1528

Castiglione wrote The Courtier in 1528. It presented the attributes of a perfect courtier. Castiglione used specific examples from his experiences in the Urbino court.

Galileo

1632

Galileo was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Galileo said the sun was in the middle of the galaxy and everything revolved around it. Everyone, especially the church, strong disagreed with this.

Humanism

1650

Humanism is a group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings

Cesare Beccaria

1764

Beccaria wrote "On Crime and Punishment". In it, Beccaria put forth some of the first modern arguments against the death penalty. He advocated reform of the criminal law system.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Reparations for wars, return Monarchs to power, and balance of power. The Italian peninsula was divided into seven parts: Lombardy-Venetia, Modena, Naples-Sicily, Parma, Piedmont-Sardinia, Tuscany, and the Papal States under the control of different powers.

Risorgimento

1825

The Risorgimento was the movement for the unification of Italy.

Giuseppe Mazzini

1848

Was an activist for the unification of Italy. Formed the group called Young Italy that wanted the unification of the several states and kingdoms of the peninsula into a single republic.

1848

1848

Unification movements were unsuccessful... FINISH