AP Euro Timeline


Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

Treaty that gave France state power in the Catholic Church, done by Francis I of France and Pope Leo X

Catherine Medici

1559 - 1589

ruled for her sons in France, she attempted to be a politique, but ended up slaughtering a ton of Heugeunots in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

May 1, 1572 - May 2, 1572

Catherine de Medici had soldiers kill all of the Hueguenots. Not good for being a politique

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass", won the war of Three Henries, switched from Calvinism to Catholicism to be king of France. Issue the Edict of Nantes (allows Huguenots to practice) so he was a politique. He was assassinated by being stabbed in a carriage

Louis 13

1610 - 1643

Louis 13 gave all power to Richelieu

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent the French troops to fight against the Habsburgs because he hated them and saw it as a chance to weaken their power. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe"


1624 - 1642

Started the French Academy to regulate the French language, Took away castles and power from nobles, fought against the Habsburgs, lessened the Edict of Nantes

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state", Bad at economics cuz he spent all his money on stupid wars and Versailles, repealed the Edict of Nantes, wanted everybody to be catholic and had all nobles live at versailles

Louis XV

1643 - 1774

mistresss was Madame Pompadour, Rococo

War of Spanish Sucession

1702 - 1713

Fought against the possible unification of France and Spain (Spance), the Quadruple Alliance won (the people against spance)


May 1, 1748 - May 2, 1748

Spirit of Laws, separate branches of govt

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria VS. Prussia over Silesia, France loses all of its holdings in America and other colonies plus a huge war debt


01/01/1759 - 01/02/1759

Candide, everyone deserves the right of free speech, hated the Catholic Church


01/01/1762 - 01/02/1762

Emile, Education should be learned by the students no teachers, because he believed people should act on emotion not logic , General Will: descision should be made by the majority of the people

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

weak and a pushover, his wife was Marie Antionette an Austrian princess. She was hated because of her extreme spending on lavish things and insentivity to the poverty that racked France. He was behead by the Committee of Public Safety on charges of treason against France

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France aids America to get back at England, which causes them to rack up more war debt

National Assembly/Legistlative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes was against the new revolution, Assignats were money backed by church land, CCC took away all catholicism in France, Constitution of 1791 makes France a constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention makes France a Republic headed by the Girondins (conservatives) and Jacobins (radicals). Committee of Public Safety sets about beheading everyone seen as a threat to the republic, Robespierre takes over and begins the Reign of Terror and kills a ton of people. The Thermidorian Reaction was when the French revolted against Robespierre and executed him


1795 - 1799

Oligarchy headed by 5 people, corrupt but waaay more stable than COPS


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 restored Catholicism to France, Napeolonic Code is enlightened because it allowed more people to vote/ have a say in govt, brought more education, and tolerated Jews. Continental System was a trade embargo against England, 3 parts are the French States, Allied States, and Dependent States. Penisular War was fought against Spain to conquer their lands, Nappy tried to invade russia but was foiled by winter and their scorched earth policy. After being exiled he returns for a Hundred days, however he is defeated finally at Waterloo

Louis 18

1814 - 1824

Was Louis 16 youngest brother, started Charter 1814 which had refrorms had the deputies which were elected officials

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

War reparations, Restore Ancien Regime, Balance of Power. Talleyrand, France was treated rather well

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative. July Ordinances restricted the press, dissolved the chamber, redid the electoral process, and moved the elections to Septemeber. Naturally the people revolted and kicked him out

Louis Phillipe

1830 - 1848

The "citizen" king or the "orleanan" monarch. He dresses like the people, allowed voting and repealed censorship. Ignored the demands of the "urban worker" that caused the "1848" rebellions

July Revolutions

07/12/1830 - 07/25/1830

Against Charles X, The middle class protested and barricaded the streets.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Republic, all males can vote, President is Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, influenced by Socialism

February Revolt

February 1, 1848 - February 28,1848

revolted against Prime Minister Guizot, Provisional Coalition Govt takes over

Provisional Government

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc was a utopian socialist he wanted a national workshop. Failed because there wasnt enough jobs and money.

June Days

June 1, 1848 - June 30, 1848

They were rioting against the closure of the national workshops. The Constitution of 1848 installs a republic as the government



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolutin

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850

Holy Roman Empire


January 1456 - December 1456

invented the printing Press

Martin Luther

January 1517 - December 1517

created the new Protestant religion Lutheranism. He believed that one could be only saved through faith, priesthood of all believers is that everyone is equal under god you dont need a pastor, Luther was a political conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal monarch, inherit land from Spain from mom and the holy roman empire from dad. He had so much land he split it between his son and brother, brother got the HRE and son got Spain.

Diet of Worms

January 1521 - December 1521

meeting called by Charles V that demanded that Luther recant his sayings against the church. He said no and was declared a fugitive.

German Peasant Revolt

1524 - 1525

The peasants used luther's revolt on the catholic church hierarchy to justify their revolt on the fuedal hierarchy of the time. Luther didnt agree and believed that they shouldnt revolt as he was a politicial conservative

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was a meeting called by Pope Paul 3 to reform the corruption in the Catholic Church. He made some reforms but didnt resolve all the issues

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestants fought the Catholics (Charles V) and the Catholics won which lead to the Peace of Augsburg

Peace of Augsburg

January 1555 - December 1555

Cuius regio, cuius religio. His realm his religion

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

started with the Defenestration of Prague, Catholics VS Protestants, France sent troops to help the Protestants to weaken the Hapsburg empire

Peace of Westphalia

January 1648 - December 1648

ends the 30 years war, allowed for Calvinism and Lutheranism, Netherlands is recognized as the United Provinces of the Netherlands

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals: balance of power, restoration of Ancien Regime, war reparations/. COncert of Europe was the balance of power, Poland is divided up in COV and Russia gets some


Robot was the scheduled work week, and VIenna was the center of Music

Battle of Vienna

January 1683 - December 1683

Ottomans attempted to invade Vienna, however Jan Sobeski (polish) saves the day and defeats the ottomans

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issues the pragmatic sanction stating the all Hapsburg lands must remain in Hapsburg lands

Maria Teresa

1740 - 1780

Her reforms include lessened robot, double troops and fixed taxes

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria VS Prussia over Silesia. Prussia gets Silesia and wins

Seven Years Wars

1756 - 1763

Prussia vs austria again, and the british team up with the prussians and the french with the austrians and fight on another continent. Britian wins everything

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mom was maria teresa. He allowed Jews, abolished serfdom, religous toleration


1821 - 1848

Carsbald Decrees was the censorship and restriction of the German Confederation. Concert of Europe was the balance of power. Nationalism and Liberalism was what he hated, Metternich system repeated congresses to resolve differences through diplomacy

1848 Revolts

January 1848 - December 1848

People wanted a liberal government, Franz Joseph returns the government to a conservative govt.


Frederick William I :p

1713 - 1740

he is the soldier king because he really focused on making the army the best

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

taxes, nobles, Invades Silesia breaking the Pragmatic Sanction

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria VS. Silesia. Prussia wins with Silesia

Seven Years Wars

1756 - 1763

Prussia (Britian) VS. Austria (France & Russia). Team prussia wins

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He is a writer/philosopher, his theories influenced Hagel. German romantic, sturm and stress movement. German Nationalist

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

1820 - 1840

how to unify germany (like what size)

George Friederick Hegel

January 1830 - December 1830

theory that thesis would fight with the antithesis and form a new govt which become the thesis and the process starts all over agian

Frankfurt Assembly

January 1848 - December 1848

first elected parliament wanted a unifed germany, gave crown to Frederick William 4 didnt want it because the people gave it to him so he rejected it


Political organization is city states


1400 - 1600

Humans can control their own destiny, backlash against medieval idea that god controls everything, borrowed from Greeks and Romans

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence

Prestige Of Florence


Florence was super wealthy and made a ton of money through merchants and loans Ruled by the Medici, powerful cuz they have a ton of money

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Son of Pope Alexander VI, tried to unite all of Italy thats why Machiavelli Liked him

Lorenzo De Medici

1478 - 1492

He was the Medici ruler who controlled Florence. Commissioned several famous paintings

Friar Savanorola

1494 - 1498

Crazy friar that claimed that the Medicis were evil and stage a riot against them and kicked them out, and the people executed him after

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

was in Rome



The prince, says that in order to be a good ruler a prince must be ruthless and mean/cruel for the benefit of the state. Better to be feared than loved

End of Italian Renaissance


Charles V invades Italy



The Courtier says what the Ideal Renaissance man and woman should be like. (men good at everything, and women good at domestic thing)



Dialogue Concerning Two world systems said that the universe was heliocentric(proved copernicus right) . It was received badly and he was forced to recant, but not really.

Cesare Beccaria


ON Crime and Punishment. said that torture was bad, treat criminals nicer


1800 - 1850

Italian Unification. what the carbornari talked about


1800 - 1850

unification of Italy

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Restoration of Ancien Regime, war reparations, and balance of power. Most of Italy was given to austria in the COV

Giueseppe Mazzini


He was the leader of Young Italy it was a political group for people under 30, they wanted Democracy

1848 Revolts


They revolts weren't successful because they couldnt agree or be a unified movement