France and German States Timeline




1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

1/1/1516 - 12/13/1516

Issued by Francis I. France must recognize that the Pope has more authority than church councils, and in return the Pope will let France hire its own bishops.

Catherine de Medici

1/1/1559 - 12/31/1589

French queen, ruled for her three incompetent sons. Not successful as a politique.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Slaughtering of Huguenots at Henry of Navarre's wedding. The Pope was so happy that he gave the messanger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1/1/1589 - 12/31/1610

"Paris is well worth a mass." Started out a Huguenot, but converted to Catholicism to survive the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Converted back to Huguenot after he was convinced that he was safe. Converted to Catholicism again when offered the French throne. Issued the Edict of Nantes, which allowed Huguenots to openly practice their religion. Cared more about peace than forcing his religion on others. Stabbed to death by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1/1/1610 - 12/31/1643

Richelieu. Richelieu created the French Academy to preserve the French language. He took away the nobles' castles and banned their luxurious lifestyle. Sent troops to help Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War because he was fighting the Hapsburgs. Took away the fortifications of the Huguenot pockets.

Thirty Years War

1/1/1618 - 12/31/1648

Richelieu sends French troops because Adolphus is fighting the Hapsburgs. By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Louis XIV

1/1/1643 - 12/31/1715

"I am the state." He spent too much money on Versailles, wars, and nobles of the robe. Recanted Edict of Nantes. Controlled nobles by forcing them to stay at Versailles for several months every year. Forced Huguenots to either convert to Catholicism or flee the country.

War of Spanish Succession

1/1/1702 - 12/31/1713

When incompetent Hapsburg king Carlos II willed the Spanish throne to Louis XIV's grandnephew Philip of Anjou, all of the other major European countries objected. They worried about the imbalance of power that combining the French and Spanish thrones would cause. The other European countries won, but they let France keep the Spanish throne on the condition that they never combine Spain and France.

Louis XV

1/1/1715 - 12/31/1774

Madame de Pompadour. Rococo.

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws publ.)


Believed in the separation of government's powers between three branches.

Seven Years War

1/1/1756 - 12/31/1763

Austrila vs. Prussia on the continent fighting over Silesia. Of continent, Austria's allies (Fr +Russ) vs. Prussia allies (Br). Br wins. Treaty of Paris (1763). No major changes in Europe off continent. Br gets France's colonies in North America.

Voltaire (Candide publ. 1759)


Voltaire advocated free speech, but hated the (Catholic) church.

Rousseau (Social Contract)


The General Will is what the majority of the people want. Believed that children should be left alone for education. Considered counter-Enlightenment because he believed in emotional response, not logic.

Louis XVI

1/1/1774 - 12/31/1792

A shy, gullible king. Marie Antoinette was his wife. She was an airhead and drove France into debt with all of her spending. He was executed on the guillotine by the French rebels. The charge was treason.

American Revolution

1/1/1776 - 12/31/1783

To get revenge on Britain. Got France into more debt.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1/1/1789 - 12/31/1791

Abee Sieyes published "What is the Third Estate?" Assignats were France's revolutionary currency. Civil Const of the Clergy: put church under revolutionary government's control. When the royal family tried to escape to Austria in 1791, they were caught and forced to agree to a constitutional monarchy.

1st French Republic

1/1/1792 - 12/31/1795

The National Convention was the revolutionary government created in 1792. It was headed by the Committee of Public Safety, a 12-man group with Robespierre as the leader. The Reign of Terror was the time when they sent a lot of "counter-revolutionaries," most of whom were working-class citizens, to the guillotine. The Thermidorian Reaction of 1795 was when the Committee of Public Safety turned on Robespierre out of paranoia that he was going to have them killed. They arrested and executed him.

Directory, Oligarchy

1/1/1795 - 12/31/1799

A 5-man committee set up to run the government after Robespierre's execution. Didn't do very much, was very corrupt. The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon in the Coup of 18 Brumare, and then he took over the government.


1/1/1799 - 12/31/1815

The Concordat of 1801 assured the Pope that most of France was Catholic. The Napoleonic code was enlightened in that it enforced universal male suffrage. The Continental System was an embargo of all British goods, and it was aimed at Britain. The 3 parts of Napoleon's empire were Spain, the Confederation of the Rhine, and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. In the Peninsular War, France invaded Spain for violating the Continental System. Spain fought back using guerrilla warfare. At about the same time, Napoleon sent half of his army into Russia because they also defied the Continental system. Most of his troops froze to death, so it didn't go well. After that, Napoleon was forced to resign and was exiled to Elba. He returned to France for the Hundred Days and everyone welcomed him. Unfortunately, he lost the Battle of Waterloo and was exiled again to St. Helena, where he eventually died.


1/1/1814 - 12/31/1824

Louis XVI's brother. The Charter of 1814 was France's new constitution under Louis XVIII. It made France a constitutional monarchy and with an elected legislature.

Congress of Vienna

1/1/1815 - 12/31/1820

The 3 goals of the COV were to establish a balance of power between countries, reestablish peace, and restore conservatism in Europe. Talleyrand was France's representative. France was treated with relative leniency.

Charles X

1/1/1824 - 12/31/1830

Conservative. The July Ordinances were an attempt by Charles X to restore customs of the Ancien Regime by taking away the voting rights of the upper middle class and censoring the press. The people responded with a revolt.

Louis Philippe

1/1/1830 - 12/31/1848

Called the Citizen King and his reign was known as the "July Monarchy" or the "Bourgeois Monarchy." He accepted the Charter of 1814 and avoided the luxurious lifestyle of the previous French kings. Ignored the demands of the urban workers and that caused the February rebellion.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. Printers, other artisans, and small traders, encouraged by journalists and lawyers, revolted against the Ordinances, barricading the streets and causing Charles X to flee.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe. A republic took over afterwards.

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc was a republican socialist who said that government-sponsored workshops should be established for workers. His political opponents objected, but because times were difficult, they compromised and set up national workshops for people.

June Days


4 days in June when people rioted against the Constituent Assembly's decision to close the national workshops. Another republic took over.

2nd French Republic

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1852

Their government was an executive republic. Only the wealthy landowners could vote. The president was Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. Heavility influenced by socialism.

Holy Roman Empire



Significance- invented the printing press



He believed that you can be saved by just believing and having faith in God- no confessionals, baptisms, or fancy ceremonies required. Priesthood of all believers- everyone is equal in the eyes of God. Political conservative- supported the nobility.

Charles V

1/1/1519 - 12/31/1556
Nickname- "The Universal Monarch." He inherited all of his land from his mother and father. When he retired, he gave the Hapsburg Monarchy to his brother Ferdinand and his Spanish holdings to his son Philip II.

Diet of Worms


It was a trial to make Luther recant the 95 Theses. Luther refused to recant, so Charles V issued the Edict of Worms.

German Peasants' Revolt


The German peasants used Luther's Priesthood of all Believers to justify their motive for revolting against the nobility. Luther was appalled because he was conservative and the nobility were his best sponsors.

Council of Trent

1/1/1545 - 12/31/1563

Reformed the Catholic church. It was fairly successful in getting rid of corrupt practices like simony (although they kept the indulgences) and educating the priests.

Schmalkaldic Wars

1/1/1546 - 12/31/1548

Schmalkaldic League vs. Charles V's army. Charles V won and imprisoned the leaders of the Schmalkaldic League. He attempted to reconvert the areas previously held by the League, but they refused and he lost control of them.

Peace of Augsburg


German princes would decide the religions of the people in their territory (2 choices- Catholic or Lutheran). Principle of the Peace of Augsburg- "Cuius regio, eius religio" ("Whose realm, his religion").

Thirty Years War

1/1/1618 - 12/31/1648

Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire, but ended up being a political war between France and the Hapsburgs. Started with the Defenetration of Prague. France enters after Richelieu learns that Protestant forces led by Gustavus Adolphus are fighting the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia


Let the prince of each German state choose that state's religion. The Netherlands gained independence from Spain.

Confederation of the Rhine

1/1/1806 - 12/31/1815

Congress of Vienna

1/1/1815 - 12/31/1820

3 goals of the Congress of Vienna: To restore the balance of power between countries, to restore conservatism and the Ancien Regime, and to repair the damage Napoleon had done over the past 20+ years.

German Confederation

1/1/1815 - 12/31/1871

Map recreated by member of Congress of Vienna after Napoleon's exile.




Required serf labor in Austria.

Battle of Vienna


The Ottoman Turks attacked Vienna, Austria. Jan Sobieski saved the day.

Charles VI

1/1/1711 - 12/31/1740

King of Austria. Issued the Pragmatic Sanction to ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa would inherit his throne after he died. The Pragmatic Sanction dictated that no one could invade Austria after his daughter took the throne. This rule was broken by Frederick II of Prussia.

Maria Theresa

1/1/1740 - 12/31/1780

Shortened the robot, improved education, and put the church under the authority of the state.

War of Austrian Succession

1/1/1740 - 12/31/1748

Austria vs. Prussia. Technically, Austria won because Maria Theresa managed to retain the throne, but Frederick II took Silesia.

Seven Years' War

1/1/1756 - 12/31/1763

In Europe: Austria and Holy Roman Empire vs. Prussia
Out of Europe: Great Britain vs. France
Winners: Austria and Great Britain

Joseph II

1/1/1765 - 12/31/1790

His mother was Maria Theresa. After he took over the Austrian throne, he abolished serfdom and feudal dues, practiced complete religious tolerance (even eased up on the Jews), allowed peasants to marry, and ended censorship. One of the most radical, Enlightened rulers of his time.

Vienna as the center for European music


During the Classical period, Vienna became the home to many famous composers, the most well-known being Beethoven, Schubert, and Mozart.


1/1/1821 - 12/31/1848

Starting with the Holy Alliance, Metternich's System fought against liberalism created from the dual revolution. The Carlsbad Decrees required the 38 German states to censor liberal ideas in their universities and newspapers as well as establish a web of spies and informers to investigate and punish liberals. Concert of Europe was the nickname given to the Congress of Vienna because so many European countries were coming together and blending the ideas of their countries like the different instrumental parts of an orchestra. The 2 things he hated were liberalism and nationalism.

1848 Revolts


The people wanted a constitutional monarchy. The government temporarily weakens, but remains autocratic. Archduchess Sophia is indirectly responsible for putting down the rebellion (through the peasant troops of the Austrian army).


Frederick William I

1/1/1713 - 12/31/1740

Nicknamed "The Soldier King" because of his obsession with the military. Obsessed with tall soldiers.

Frederick William II

1/1/1714 - 12/31/1740

Called "the Soldier KIng" because of his obsession with the military. Especially obsessed with tall soldiers.

War of Austrian Succession

1/1/1740 - 12/31/1748

Prussia vs. Austria. Maria Theresa survived and kept the Austrian throne, but Prussia kept Silesia, so it's hard to say that there was a clear winner.

Frederick II

1/1/1740 - 12/31/1786

Abolished serfdom, enforced education, universal religious toleration, and freedom of the press. He violated the Pragmatic Sanction when he invaded Austria and took over Silesia.

Seven Years War

1/1/1756 - 12/31/1763

In Europe: Prussia vs. Austria
Outside of Europe: Prussia's allies (Great Britain) vs. Austria's allies (France)
Great Britain won.

Johan Herder

1/1/1780 - 12/31/1790

German philosopher who was inspired the Sturm und Drang movement.

Gross deutsch vs kleine deutsche debate

1/1/1800 - 12/31/1830

A 19th century debate over how to unify the German states.

George Friederick Hegel


Hegel's theory on the progression of history is that each age is characterized by a certain set of ideas which produce opposing ideas and eventually a new overall idea.

Frankfurt Assembly


They wanted to create a liberal, unified Germany. They offered the crown to Frederick William IV, but he refused on account of the new constitution being too liberal. This caused political unrest in Germany, which resulted in weakened liberalism and little progress.


Early Renaissance

1/1/1450 - 12/31/1500

Began in Florence, Italy.

Political organization of Italy

1/1/1450 - 12/31/1500



1/1/1450 - 12/31/1500

The understanding that humans control their own destiny. An idea that comes from Ancient Greece and Rome.

Prestige of Florence

1/1/1460 - 12/31/1470

The banker families (Medicis). They controlled most of Italy's money.

Cesare Borgia

1/1/1476 - 12/31/1507

Son of Pope Alexander VI. He was admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite all of Italy.

Lorenzo de Medici

1/1/1478 - 12/31/1492

The ruler of Florence and a member of the Medici family. Called Lorenzo the Magnificent because he sponsored so much Renaissance art.

Friar Savonarola

1/1/1494 - 12/31/1498

A Dominican monk. Hated the humanist movement and the Medicis for making Italy so worldly and sinful. He preached harshly and burned Renaissance books and artwork. People were amused by him for a while, but eventually they accused him of heresy and burned him at the stake.

High Renaissance

1/1/1500 - 12/31/1527

In Rome.



Machiavelli's The Prince says that it is better for a leader to be feared than to be loved, and that a leader is justified for using any means possible to win, as long as he wins in the end.

End of Italian Renaissance


Charles V of France invaded Italy (invited by Ludvico Il Moro).



Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier was a mannerism guide for the men and women of the Renaissance. The ideal man was skilled in just about everything and the ideal woman was quiet and beautiful.



Galileo's Dialogue oncerning the Two Chief World Systems said that the Sun was at the center of the universe, not Earth. It was received badly because that meant that Earth was not as important as people and the Bible said that it was. The Pope made Galileo recant.

Cesare Beccaria


Beccaria's On Crime and Punishment says that prisoners should be treated with less cruelty, and he advises taking away the death penalty.


1/1/1800 - 12/31/1850

Italian unification movement. Young Italy, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs.

Congress of Vienna

1/1/1815 - 12/31/1820

3 goals of the Congress of Vienna: to restore conservatism and the Ancien Regime, to fix the damage caused by the French Revolution and Napoleon, and to establish a balance of power between all of the present countries. Italy was divided into 10 states.

Giuseppe Mazzini


He help to unify Italy. His group was Young Italy. He wanted a representative monarchy (like the Roman Empire).



Unification movements in 1848 were considered unsuccessful because there was little to no structural change in any of the countries that experienced revolution. Many believe the movements failed because the revolutionaries didn't/couldn't cooperate with each other.