French, Holy Roman Empire, Italy Timeline

Eras

Renaissance (1400-1600)

Age of Exploration (1450s-1600s)

Reformation (1517-1600s)

Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment (1550-1800s)

Absolutism (1600s-1750s)

French Revolution (1789-1815)

Reaction & Romanticism (1815-1850)

France

Concordat of Bologna (1516)

Issued by Francis I. It recognized the pope's authority over the catholic church in exchange of the pope recognizing the French king's authority over the French church. Kept France catholic

Catherine de Medici (ruled for sons 1559-1589)

She was the wife of King Henry II of France. She became the ruler of France for her 3 sons after her husband died because they were too young to rule. She was not successful in being a politique and was most famously blamed for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which left thousands thousands of Huguenots dead.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

This was a brutal massacre of Huguenots that took place after the wedding of the king's sister to Henry of Navarre, who was a protestant. The Pope thought it was fantastic and rewarded the messenger who brought him the news.

Henry IV (1589-1610)

Became king of France. "Paris is well worth a mass." Became catholic in order to rule France. Edict of Nantes gave rights to Huguenots. Assassinated in Paris by Catholic fanatic.

Louis XIII (1610-1643) / Richelieu (1624-1642)

Louis XIII relied heavily on Cardinal Richelieu to govern the Kingdom. French Academy established by Richelieu was the authority on the French language. Controlled the nobles by gaining more power for the king. King's forces took down walls on Huguenot towns and suppressed them. They fought the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years War.

Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

Louis XIII and Richelieu order French troops to fight against the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years' War.

Louis XIV (1643-1715)

"I am the state" Those who could afford to pay the most tax payed the least amount, while those who couldn't afford to pay large taxes ended up proportionally paying the most. He made nobles and powerful government figures live at Versailles where he could keep a close watch on them. He revoked the Edict of Nantes.

War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713)

When Spanish Hapsburg King Charles II died in 1700, he willed his throne away to Philip of Anjou who was in the French Bourbon family. The unification of France and Spain upset other European countries because it would upset the balance of power in Europe. The war ended with treaty of Utrecht and resulted in Phillip V remaining the king of Spain but was removed from French line of succession which averted unification of Spain and France.

Louis XV (1715-1774)

Famous mistress Madame de Pompadour. The art style Rococo is born.

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws publ. 1748)

There should be a separation of powers to avoid despotism. System of check and balances on government power.

Seven Years War (1756-1763)

France vs. England. France lost all claims North America and India.

Voltaire (Candide publi. 1759)

He believed that everyone should have the right to free-speech. He did not care much for religion and on the topic of the Catholic church said "Crush the thing.."

Rousseau (Social Contract, publi. 1762) (Emile publ. 1762)

The general will is sacred and absolute, reflecting the common interest of all the people, who have displaced the monarch as the holder of sovereign power. General will is not necessarily the will of the majority. Emile- He felt that civilization destroys rather than liberates the individual. A child should be protected from evils of society.

Lois XVI (1774-1792)

not a natural leader and very unaware of the problems and conflicts of his country. Marie Antoinette, his wife, was hated because she was a Hapsburg from Austria and also because of her extravagant lifestyle. Louis XVI was executed for High Treason and Crimes against the State.

American Revolution (1776-1783)

France helped Americans because they wanted to weaken Britain as well as exact their revenge for the defeat in the Seven Years War. France got itself into debt.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly (1789-1791)

The Government of France during the beginning of the French Revolution. Abee Sieyes argued in his famous pamphlet, "What is the third estate?" that the nobility was a tiny, overprivileged minority and that the neglected third estate was the true strength of France. Civil Constitution of the Clergy subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French Government. Assignats were paper currency issued by National Assembly in France during the Revolution ('89-'96) Constriction of 1791 was a short-lived constitutional monarchy that governed France from 1791-1792.

1st French Republic (1792-1795)

National Convention was the executive governing body of France during the revolution. Committee of Public Safety was created by National Convention and was in charge of protecting the newly founded republic from foreign attack and internal rebellion. they were to uphold revolutionary ideas. Reign of Terror was the name given to the period of time when "enemies of the revolution" were executed in huge masses by the guillotine. Thermidorian reaction was a a revolt against the excesses of the reign of terror which triggered the execution of Robespierre.

Directory, Oligarchy (1795-1799)

A body of five directors that held executive powers in France following the convention.

Napoleon (1799-1815)

concordat of 1801 was signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. The pope gained French Catholics the right to practice religion freely. Napoleon gained political power, nominated bishops, payed the clergy, and asserted great influence over the church of France. Napoleonic code was enlightened because it forbid privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified govt. jobs should go to most qualified. Continental System was a foreign policy that put an embargo on British trade. Three parts of his empire were the French Empire, dependent states, and allied states. Peninsular War (1808-1812) was a war fought in Spain over the Spanish not abiding by the Continental system. Napoleon tried to invade Russia as well but failed miserably. After he was exiled, Napoleon came back and ruled in a short period of time which was referred to the Hundred Days (1815). He was defeated at the battle of Waterloo (1815)

Louis XVIII (1814-1824)

brother of king Louis XVI. A constitution granted by the King of France after his restoration. Kept Napoleon's code and religious arrangements and added a chamber of deputies.

Congress of Vienna (1815-1820)

Three goals of the Congress of Vienna were to return the balance of power, create buffer states around France, and restore monarchs. The French representative for the Congress of Vienna was Charles Talleyrand. The French were not punished too harshly considering all that Napoleon had done to Europe.

Charles X (1824-1830)

Conservative. Ordered July Ordinances which dissolved chamber of deputies, decreased # of voters, and controlled the press. The people revolted and barricaded Paris.

July Revolutions (1830)

Against Charles X. Barricades set up throughout Paris in protest. The people of France revolted.

Louis Philippe (1830-1848)

"The Citizen King" The July Monarchy. He doubled the amount of voters by reducing property requirements to vote, abolished censorship of press, and replaced Bourbon flag. Ignored dmands of the urban worker and caused the February Revolt.

Provisional Government (march-may 1848)

Louis Blanc was a French politician and socialist. He wanted National workshops provided by the govt. to employ all citizens. The govt. didn't have enough work for citizens, were essentially printing off checks for citizens.

June Days (June, 1848)

They were rioting against the closing of National Workshops. 2nd French republic was put into place.

February Revolt (Feb. 1848)

It was against Louis Philippe. The Provisional Government took over.

2nd French Republic (June 1848-1852)

Republican government. All males were allowed to vote. The president was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III). heavily influenced by socialism.

Holy Roman Empire

Gutenberg (1465)

Invented the Gutenberg Printing Press. Revolutionized literature publication and communication.

Luther (1517)

Luther believed that people gained salvation through their faith alone. The priesthood of all believers means that people do not have to rely on a church to worship and are allowed to worship and serve God individually. Luther viewed government simply as a tool for justice and to keep peace.

Charles V (r. 1519-1556)

"Universal Monarch" He inherited a large empire because of his claim to Hapsburg land from his father and Spanish land from his mother. When he retired he divided his land between his son Phillip and his brother Ferdinand. Phillip got the Spanish Empire and Ferdinand succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor.

Diet of Worms (1521)

Martin Luther was asked by Charles V to recant his beliefs. He refused to do so and fled.

German Peasants revolt (1525)

The peasants used the reformation ideas of Martin Luther to protest their oppression by nobles and demand more rights. Luther condemned the rebellion.

Council of Trent (1545-1563)

A council called to determine the doctrines of the Catholic church. This was essentially answering disputes on salvation and the Eucharist by Protestants and defining Catholic beliefs.

Schmalkaldic War (1546-1548)

The forces of Charles V fought the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League. It was resolved with the Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

A settlement between Lutherans and Catholics that allowed the Prince of each state choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. "cuius regio, eius religio"

Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

In the Holy Roman Empire the thirty years war was largely a battle between Protestants and Catholics and the balance of power within the states. France entered the war for fear of a too powerful and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire.

Peace of Westphalia (1648)

The reforms in the Peace of Augsburg was now extended to Calvinists as well. Netherlands were given independence.

Confederation of the Rhine (1806-1815)

After Napoleon won the Battle of Austerlitz, the German states were formed together to make the Confederation of the Rhine. They seceded from the Holy Roman Empire which caused the HRE to finally dissolve.

German Confederation (1815-1871)

Association of German-Speaking states formed together to coordinate economies and also serve as a buffer between Austria and Prussia. Balance of Power.

Congress of Vienna (1815 - 1820)

Three goals of the Congress of Vienna were to return the balance of power, create buffer states around France, and restore monarchs. There was a big controversy over Poland. Russia wanted Poland and Prussia agreed to give Poland to Russia if Prussia gained all of saxony. The other countries were not happy with this and didn't allow the deal. The concert of Europe was the name given to the balance of power in Europe that lasted until World War I.

Austria

Battle of Vienna (1683)

The Ottoman Empire laid siege on the Austrian town of Vienna. Polish King John III Sobieski stopped the advancing Ottoman Empire and saved Vienna.

Robot

A working tax placed on the serfs determined by how much they worked.

Charles VI (r. 1711-1740)

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI used the Pragmatic Sanction to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter, Maria Theresa.

Maria Theresa (r. Austria, 1740-1780)

Introduced measures aimed at limiting the papacy's political influence in her realm. Second, a whole series of administrative reforms strengthened the central bureaucracy, smoothed out some provincial differences, and revamped the tax system, taxing even the lands of nobles without special exemptions. Reduced the power of lords over their hereditary serfs and their partially free peasants tenants.

War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

When Charles VI died and passed on the throne to his daughter Maria Theresa, Frederick II (Prussia) invaded Silesia. This broke the Pragmatic Sanction and caused the war. Maria Theresa (HRE) was no match for the Prussian forces. She did however make an alliance with France and Russia. At the end of the war the Prussians kept Silesia.

Seven Years War (1756-1763)

Austria mad alliance with France and Russia to try and isolate Prussia. They fought a smart Prussian military and finally had a russian army in a position to defeat Frederick II. The new russian leader Peter III worshipped Frederick II and called off the attack. He instead wanted to join Prussia. He was taken out of power and replaced with Catherine the Great who instead wanted to just end the war (Treaty of Hubertusburg, 1763). Prussia kept Silesia.

Joseph II (r. 1765-1790)

His mother was Maria Theresa. Watched church more closely to ensure that it produced better citizens. Religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews. Abolished serfdom. Vienna as the center for European Music.

Metternich (1821-1848)

The Metternich system was put into place to try and keep peace. This system was against liberalism and suppressed revolutionary and nationalistic movements. Censorship of religion and political ideas. Carlsbad Decrees requires German states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers. Established spies to investigate liberal or radical organizations. He hated liberalism and nationalism. Concert of Europe was the balance of power established after COV.

1848 Revolts

People wanted Civil Liberties as well as a unified Germany. They receive a slightly more liberal constitution. Franz Joseph puts down rebellion.

Prussia

Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740)

"The Soldier King" because of his fondness of military. He had a thing for tall soldiers.

War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

When Charles VI died and passed on the throne to his daughter Maria Theresa, Frederick II (Prussia) invaded Silesia. This broke the Pragmatic Sanction and caused the war. Maria Theresa (HRE) was no match for the Prussian forces. She did however make an alliance with France and Russia. At the end of the war the Prussians kept Silesia.

Frederick II (r. Prussia, 1740-1786)

Religious tolerance, promoted the advancement of education, abolished torture of prisoners, and reformed legal system. Disobeyed the Pragmatic Sanction by invading Silesia and trying to take throne away form Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa.

Seven Years War (1756-1763)

Austria mad alliance with France and Russia to try and isolate Prussia. They fought a smart Prussian military and finally had a russian army in a position to defeat Frederick II. The new russian leader Peter III worshipped Frederick II and called off the attack. He instead wanted to join Prussia. He was taken out of power and replaced with Catherine the Great who instead wanted to just end the war (Treaty of Hubertusburg, 1763). Prussia kept Silesia.

Johan Herder – (wrote 1780s & 1790s)

He was a German philosopher and literary critic that is credited with influencing the start of European Romanticism. "storm and stress" or the strum and drang movement. Led to a greater sense of German nationalism.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate(early 19th century)

debate over whether Germanic states should unite together including Austria (Gross) or if just the Germanic states come together without Austria (Kleine).

George Friederick Hegel (pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, 1830)

History advances through conflict. One phase of history creates its opposite (Ex: absolutism to democracy)

Frankfurt Assembly (1848)

Wanted a New Constitution which would provide an elected parliament and would unify the states as a German Empire. The crown was offered to Frederick William IV who rejected it, calling it a "crown from the gutter."

Italy

Humanism (anywhere in Renaissance)

Philosophy that puts emphasis on the value human beings. A belief that humans are capable of doing great things by themselves without help from any kind of religion.

Political Organization of Italy (anywhere)

Italy was structured by several city states.

Early Renaissance (1450s-1500s)

The Early Renaissance began in Florence, Italy.

Prestige of Florence (1460s)

The Medici family ruled Florence. They were powerful because they were an extremely rich banking family.

Cesare Borgia (1476-1507)

He was the illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI. He was admired by Machiavelli for his brutal military action to maintain control of his people and keep the people united.

Lorenzo de Medici (ruled Florence, 1478-1492)

He was part of the Medici family who were very wealthy bankers that ruled Florence. They were very influential during the Renaissance.

Friar Savonarola (r. 1494-1498)

A dominican friar who was responsible for expelling the Medici rulers from Florence. He established a republic in Florence but was executed later for refusing to join the pope's holy league.

High Renaissance (1500-1527)

The High Renaissance took place in Rome.

Machiavelli (The Prince, pub. 1513)

It explains all the characteristics necessary for a prince to successfully keep control of his land and keep it united. Explains that a prince must sometimes be harsh or brutal to accomplish this. "It is better to be feared than loved."

End of Italian Renaissance (1527)

The Italian wars which caused the destrution of many Italian city states and the sacking of Rome.

Catiglione (Book of the Courtier, pub. 1528)

This book reflected upon characteristics and common courtesy of people that were displayed during the renaissance.

Galileo (..TwoChief World Systems, publ. 1632)

He was comparing the traditional theory that said everything in the universe revolves around the earth, to the copernican theory which said everything revolves around the sun. It was despised and put on a list of forbidden books. It was considered heresy.

Cesare Beccaria (ON Crime and Punishment, pub. 1764)

He advocated for criminal justice system reform. He condemned the use of torture and the death penalty

Risorgimento (anywhere in the first half of the 19th century):

political movement that wanted to unify all the Italian lands. Guiseppe Mazzini's group, Young Italy. Sardinians. Neo Guelfs.

Congress of Vienna (1815-1820)

Three goals of the Congress of Vienna were to return the balance of power, create buffer states around France, and restore monarchs. Italy was returned to separate states after Napoleon lost control of the land. The COV failed to unify Italy.

1848

Unification failed because each of the three separate groups were looking for 3 different things.

Guiseppe Mazzini (1848)

Romantic politician. His group was called Young Italy. He wanted a democracy.