King sets the pay for the clergy, but France recognises the power of the pope over church councils. Enacted by Francis I.
She was horribly unsuccesful at being a politique because she had all the Huguenots slaughtered at Henry of Navarres wedding.
Catherine de Medici had abunch Hugenots murdered at Henry of Navarre's wedding. The pope was so thrilled, he gave the messegner a bag of gold.
"Paris is well worth a mass". He was a Hugenot, turned Catholic to avoid being killed, who then went back to Hugenot, but then to Catholic to be king. Issues Edict of Nantes, saying Hugenots could live in fortifed cities of Hugenot majority. He kept the peace through religious toleration, though he was stabbed by a religious zealot.
Richelieu (1624-1642). Rich. had the majority of the power as Louis started off as a young boy. Establishes strong education through French Academy, teaches French Language. Controls nobles by taking away their lavish lifestyles and castles. Sent troops to the Dutch to aid in a revolt against the Hapsburgs. Takes away Hugenot fortifications, though they can still practice.
Rich/Louis XIII sends the French troops, because he wants to uproot the Hapsburgs. By this point France is the strongest country in Europe!
I am the state. He taxed all the people with no money, engaged in silly wars, and built a palace the cost basically more than the country. CATHOLIC, revoked the Edict of Nantes. Made the nobles live with him for part of the year.
Charles II (big dummy) wills the throne of Spain to Philip of Anjou, whos some sort of nephew to Louis XIV. So Louis XIV wants to create SPANCE. Rest of Europe says no no no, and tells France no. Ends with Treaty of Utrecht, they can be under the same dynasty, no SPANCE.
Madame de Pompadour, famous mistress. Rococo art.
Austria and allies vs Prussia and allies. Ends with Treat of Paris (1763). No European cont. changes, off cont. all French colonies in America go to Britain.
Published Spirit of the laws in 1748. He's all about three branches of government, and seperation of powers.
Candide was published 1759. He's all about free speech, "I may not like what you have to say...". Hates the church, "Crush the Church".
Social contract and Emile published in 1762. Hates the government, says its a neccesary evil and that in the state of nature we are mere "noble savages". Thinks organized education is wash, and that children should learn on their own.
Bit of a schlub, married to Marie Antoinette, who was hated for being a Hapsburg. He was executed for treason.
French helped out to get revenge on Britain, unfortunately it wrecked their economy.
Abee Siyes wrote the book on the third estate, advocating more power for them. Assignats paper currency backed by church lands. CCoC- puts church under control of assembly. Const. Of 1791 approved by Louis XVI
National convention institutes reign of terror led by Robespierre head if the executive body, the committee of public safety. Thermidorian Reaction is reaction against Robespierre, executed face up.
5 man oligarchy, really corrupt. But... They kept the peace.
Co1801 says that France is mostly catholic. Made all landowning white men equal. Continental system = economic warfare against the British. Allowed no one to trade with them. Failed invasion io russia. Peninsular war in which Spanish utilized guerrilla tactics, 100 days are his return from exile on st Helena. Waterloo is final battle- nappy exiled to Elba.
He is the brother of king Louis XVI. Charter of 1814 establishes a legislative body.
Establish balance of power, restore legitimacy, and make France pay reparations. Talleyrand, France had little say.
Charles X was a liberal that went backwards. He said he was going to govern by ordinances. The people absolutely hated it
He was known as the citizen king and his rule was nicknamed the July monarch. He avoided all the lavish and pompous lifestyle, but he ignored the working class... Bad call.
The were revolts that saw the overthrow of Charles X. The working class revolted by setting up barricades in the streets to block soldiers.
Against Louis Philipe, establishes a second French Republic.
A product of the revolt against Louis P. it was actually considered his successor. Louis blanc was a French socialist who wanted to build co-ops to help the poor.
Uprising by workers of France encouraging the closing of national Workshops created by the second republic
Heavily influenced by socialism. They had a monarchy. 2nd French Republic had a legislative body with DuPont has first president
Invents the printing press
Believed in salvation through faith ALONE. All men were equal under God, no more holier than thou. Luther was a religious radical but a political conservative, who dug big government.
Known as the Universal Monarch because he inherited HRE from his father and Spain (where he is Charles I) from his mother. Abdicates throne, Spain to son, Philip II, and HRE goes to brother, Ferdinand (short end of the stick).
Charles V gave Luther a chance to recant, but he said no. So he became a wanted fugitive.
Said that priesthood of all believers was justification and evidence they were being treated unfair and through Luther's doctrine, they had the right to revolt. In reality, they just wrecked stuff, Luther being the political conservative that he was, wrote on "The murderous and thieving hordes". Telling the powers that be to crush the peasant revolt.
It was the Catholic Church's attempt to reform itself. It was overall pretty successful, but they decided to keep the sacraments (reaffirming catholic doctrine being the goal), as well as indulgences.
Catholic German Princes vs Protestant Trade Leagues. Results in the peace of Augsburg, saying a ruler can decide the religion of his land, but... Only Catholicism or Lutheranism, NOT Calvinism.
The majority of Europe v.s. the Hapsburgs, began however as Catholics v.s. Protestants. But France sends some troops to fight the Hapsburgs, even though they are both Catholic cause France is under Richialouis, and Richialouis hates the Hapsburgs.
They acknowledge Calvinism (great). German princes get their sovereignty (great),United Provinces of Netherlands are recognized as independent, France gets Alsace Loraine (Significantly less great)
Impose balance of power, restore legitimacy, and make France pay for their boo boos. Poland, russia wants it, prussia wants russia to have it, NOONE else wants this! Concert of Europe, a big conference could be held at any time by the big four, and later the fifth, France.
Compulsory, unpaid labor. One of the means of exploitations of the peasants.
The Ottoman Empire goes and attacks Austria, however Jan Sobieski from Poland shows up and saves everybody.
Issues the Pragmatic Sanction that insures his female heir the right to rule (Maria Theresa),
This is where Prussia violates the Pragmatic Sanction and attacks Austria ruled by Maria Theresa. Most European powers were involved, however not much changes. MT gets to keep power, sacrificing Silesia to Prussia.
Got rid of torture, broke church control over education, and decreased the landlords power of serfs.
It was primarily Britain v.s. France, though it involved most major powers in Europe. France ended up having to give their over seas colonies to Britain, so its safe to say Britain won.
His mother was Maria Theresa. He was super enlightened,abolished serfdom, ditched capital punishment, and loved religious toleration. However he was considered to radical, so they nixed all his reforms once he died.
Metternich system was a means to repress revolutions through censorship and espionage. Carlsbad decrees ban nationalist fraternities, remove liberal professors, and expand censorship. Concert of Europe. All European big powers can hold a conference when needed. Metternich hates nationalism and liberalism.
All these different groups of people want independence, monarchy remains in Austria. The revolutionaries ultimately fell apart because they all wanted different things
Makes Prussia the "Sparta of the North". Trains an awesome army.
Goes about abolishing torture and capital punishment, as well as granting freedom of press. However he totally violates the pragmatic sanction and invades austria
Prussian and Austria along with both their allies. No one really wins, but Austria has to give up Silesia.
Philosopher, poet, and literary critic. Basically began the Sturm and Drang movement.
GD favored unifying all German speaking people's under one state. KD wanted to unify only northern states, and not Austria.
History and information is supposed to be carefully, as well as cautiously analyzed.
They wanted a constitutional monarchy,and offered the job to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, but alas, he said nay.
This begins in Florence.
Ruled by Lorenzo de Medici. Powerful because he has a ton of money, and all those merchants, with all that money.
Pretty bad dude as a whole. Machiavellian ruler to the max. Tries to unify Italy, fails like most everyone else.
Powerful Medici ruler of Florence.
Crazy Italian Dominican Friar who hates the Medicis and all things secular. Gets everyone to burn books. However they wise up to his crazy, and burn him... whoops.
Rock n' rolls in Rome.
Italy is just a bunch of city-states.
Going back to classical ideas set up the Greeks and Romans.
HRE emperor Charles V sacks Rome! jerk...
A basically describes the ideal Renaissance man (Ryan Gosling) and the ideal Ren. Woman, aka kitchen wizard.
Lots of things, planets have elliptical orbit, suns in the middle, and uniform acceleration etc. church absolutely hates it.
Says no no no (like Amy Winehouse) to capital punishment and torture.
Italian unification, favored by France, Prussia, and Russia.
Politician and journalist who is all about that unification of Italy life. Founded the group, young Italy.
Italy unification is crushed by reactive powers in Europe.