The Best Parallel Timeline




1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


King sets the pay for the clergy, but France recognises the power of the pope over church councils. Enacted by Francis I.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She was horribly unsuccesful at being a politique because she had all the Huguenots slaughtered at Henry of Navarres wedding.

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine de Medici had abunch Hugenots murdered at Henry of Navarre's wedding. The pope was so thrilled, he gave the messegner a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass". He was a Hugenot, turned Catholic to avoid being killed, who then went back to Hugenot, but then to Catholic to be king. Issues Edict of Nantes, saying Hugenots could live in fortifed cities of Hugenot majority. He kept the peace through religious toleration, though he was stabbed by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

Richelieu (1624-1642). Rich. had the majority of the power as Louis started off as a young boy. Establishes strong education through French Academy, teaches French Language. Controls nobles by taking away their lavish lifestyles and castles. Sent troops to the Dutch to aid in a revolt against the Hapsburgs. Takes away Hugenot fortifications, though they can still practice.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Rich/Louis XIII sends the French troops, because he wants to uproot the Hapsburgs. By this point France is the strongest country in Europe!

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state. He taxed all the people with no money, engaged in silly wars, and built a palace the cost basically more than the country. CATHOLIC, revoked the Edict of Nantes. Made the nobles live with him for part of the year.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Charles II (big dummy) wills the throne of Spain to Philip of Anjou, whos some sort of nephew to Louis XIV. So Louis XIV wants to create SPANCE. Rest of Europe says no no no, and tells France no. Ends with Treaty of Utrecht, they can be under the same dynasty, no SPANCE.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame de Pompadour, famous mistress. Rococo art.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria and allies vs Prussia and allies. Ends with Treat of Paris (1763). No European cont. changes, off cont. all French colonies in America go to Britain.



Published Spirit of the laws in 1748. He's all about three branches of government, and seperation of powers.



Candide was published 1759. He's all about free speech, "I may not like what you have to say...". Hates the church, "Crush the Church".



Social contract and Emile published in 1762. Hates the government, says its a neccesary evil and that in the state of nature we are mere "noble savages". Thinks organized education is wash, and that children should learn on their own.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Bit of a schlub, married to Marie Antoinette, who was hated for being a Hapsburg. He was executed for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

French helped out to get revenge on Britain, unfortunately it wrecked their economy.

National Assembly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Siyes wrote the book on the third estate, advocating more power for them. Assignats paper currency backed by church lands. CCoC- puts church under control of assembly. Const. Of 1791 approved by Louis XVI

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National convention institutes reign of terror led by Robespierre head if the executive body, the committee of public safety. Thermidorian Reaction is reaction against Robespierre, executed face up.


1795 - 1799

5 man oligarchy, really corrupt. But... They kept the peace.


1799 - 1815

Co1801 says that France is mostly catholic. Made all landowning white men equal. Continental system = economic warfare against the British. Allowed no one to trade with them. Failed invasion io russia. Peninsular war in which Spanish utilized guerrilla tactics, 100 days are his return from exile on st Helena. Waterloo is final battle- nappy exiled to Elba.


1814 - 1820

He is the brother of king Louis XVI. Charter of 1814 establishes a legislative body.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Establish balance of power, restore legitimacy, and make France pay reparations. Talleyrand, France had little say.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Charles X was a liberal that went backwards. He said he was going to govern by ordinances. The people absolutely hated it

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

He was known as the citizen king and his rule was nicknamed the July monarch. He avoided all the lavish and pompous lifestyle, but he ignored the working class... Bad call.

July Revolutions


The were revolts that saw the overthrow of Charles X. The working class revolted by setting up barricades in the streets to block soldiers.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philipe, establishes a second French Republic.

Provisional Government


A product of the revolt against Louis P. it was actually considered his successor. Louis blanc was a French socialist who wanted to build co-ops to help the poor.

June Days


Uprising by workers of France encouraging the closing of national Workshops created by the second republic

2nd French republic

1848 - 1852

Heavily influenced by socialism. They had a monarchy. 2nd French Republic had a legislative body with DuPont has first president

Holy Roman Empire



Invents the printing press



Believed in salvation through faith ALONE. All men were equal under God, no more holier than thou. Luther was a religious radical but a political conservative, who dug big government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Known as the Universal Monarch because he inherited HRE from his father and Spain (where he is Charles I) from his mother. Abdicates throne, Spain to son, Philip II, and HRE goes to brother, Ferdinand (short end of the stick).

Diet of Worms


Charles V gave Luther a chance to recant, but he said no. So he became a wanted fugitive.

German Peasants Revolt


Said that priesthood of all believers was justification and evidence they were being treated unfair and through Luther's doctrine, they had the right to revolt. In reality, they just wrecked stuff, Luther being the political conservative that he was, wrote on "The murderous and thieving hordes". Telling the powers that be to crush the peasant revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was the Catholic Church's attempt to reform itself. It was overall pretty successful, but they decided to keep the sacraments (reaffirming catholic doctrine being the goal), as well as indulgences.

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1548

Catholic German Princes vs Protestant Trade Leagues. Results in the peace of Augsburg, saying a ruler can decide the religion of his land, but... Only Catholicism or Lutheranism, NOT Calvinism.

Peace of Augsburg


See previous.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The majority of Europe v.s. the Hapsburgs, began however as Catholics v.s. Protestants. But France sends some troops to fight the Hapsburgs, even though they are both Catholic cause France is under Richialouis, and Richialouis hates the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia


They acknowledge Calvinism (great). German princes get their sovereignty (great),United Provinces of Netherlands are recognized as independent, France gets Alsace Loraine (Significantly less great)

Conferderation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Impose balance of power, restore legitimacy, and make France pay for their boo boos. Poland, russia wants it, prussia wants russia to have it, NOONE else wants this! Concert of Europe, a big conference could be held at any time by the big four, and later the fifth, France.




Compulsory, unpaid labor. One of the means of exploitations of the peasants.

Battle of Vienna


The Ottoman Empire goes and attacks Austria, however Jan Sobieski from Poland shows up and saves everybody.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issues the Pragmatic Sanction that insures his female heir the right to rule (Maria Theresa),

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

This is where Prussia violates the Pragmatic Sanction and attacks Austria ruled by Maria Theresa. Most European powers were involved, however not much changes. MT gets to keep power, sacrificing Silesia to Prussia.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Got rid of torture, broke church control over education, and decreased the landlords power of serfs.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

It was primarily Britain v.s. France, though it involved most major powers in Europe. France ended up having to give their over seas colonies to Britain, so its safe to say Britain won.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

His mother was Maria Theresa. He was super enlightened,abolished serfdom, ditched capital punishment, and loved religious toleration. However he was considered to radical, so they nixed all his reforms once he died.


1821 - 1848

Metternich system was a means to repress revolutions through censorship and espionage. Carlsbad decrees ban nationalist fraternities, remove liberal professors, and expand censorship. Concert of Europe. All European big powers can hold a conference when needed. Metternich hates nationalism and liberalism.

1848 Revolts


All these different groups of people want independence, monarchy remains in Austria. The revolutionaries ultimately fell apart because they all wanted different things


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Makes Prussia the "Sparta of the North". Trains an awesome army.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Goes about abolishing torture and capital punishment, as well as granting freedom of press. However he totally violates the pragmatic sanction and invades austria

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussian and Austria along with both their allies. No one really wins, but Austria has to give up Silesia.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

Philosopher, poet, and literary critic. Basically began the Sturm and Drang movement.

Gross deutsch vs Kleine deutsch debate


GD favored unifying all German speaking people's under one state. KD wanted to unify only northern states, and not Austria.

George Friedrick Hegel


History and information is supposed to be carefully, as well as cautiously analyzed.

Frankfurt Assembly


They wanted a constitutional monarchy,and offered the job to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, but alas, he said nay.


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

This begins in Florence.

Prestige of Florence


Ruled by Lorenzo de Medici. Powerful because he has a ton of money, and all those merchants, with all that money.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Pretty bad dude as a whole. Machiavellian ruler to the max. Tries to unify Italy, fails like most everyone else.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Powerful Medici ruler of Florence.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Crazy Italian Dominican Friar who hates the Medicis and all things secular. Gets everyone to burn books. However they wise up to his crazy, and burn him... whoops.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Rock n' rolls in Rome.

Political Orginization of Italy


Italy is just a bunch of city-states.



Going back to classical ideas set up the Greeks and Romans.

End of Italian Renaissance


HRE emperor Charles V sacks Rome! jerk...



A basically describes the ideal Renaissance man (Ryan Gosling) and the ideal Ren. Woman, aka kitchen wizard.



Lots of things, planets have elliptical orbit, suns in the middle, and uniform acceleration etc. church absolutely hates it.

Cesare Beccaria


Says no no no (like Amy Winehouse) to capital punishment and torture.



Italian unification, favored by France, Prussia, and Russia.

Giuseppe Mazzini


Politician and journalist who is all about that unification of Italy life. Founded the group, young Italy.



Italy unification is crushed by reactive powers in Europe.