The Era of Revolting Abandon

Austria

Vienna was the center of European music
the robot - 3 days of unpaid labor a week became the norm, many serfs worked everyday except Sunday

Battle of Vienna

1683

The Ottomans laid siege to Vienna. After two months the Turks were eventually forced back by fresh troops who had come to the aid of the Austrians. Day saved by King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued Pragmatic Sanction, ensuring that a daughter-- Maria Theresa-- could inherit the throne, securing the Hapsburg line.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Had a bunch of daughters that she married off to form political alliances; Reduced Robot and increased freedom for serfs.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Between Prussia (Freddy II) and Austria (Maria Theresa). Frederick, not recognizing the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded with his super awesome military, walking away with Silesia. Maria Theresa would fight for Silesia in the seven year's war.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

It was Austria (Maria Teresa) and Austria's allies vs. Prussia (Freddy II) and Prussia's allies. Prussia won. Well technically Britain did too.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

MY MAN JOSEPH!!!! His mother was the ever lovely, well-meaning Maria Theresa. He did all sorts of fancy stuff like grant religious freedom (even jews), freedom for serfs, and freedom of speech. Unfortunately, he was a bit too radical for his time, most of his reforms undone after his death.

Metternich

1821 - 1848

Austrian Rep in CoV. Hates liberalism and nationalism (he's super conservative) and used the German confederation to oppose these concepts (this is the Metternich System) Issues the Carlsbad Decrees which required German states to root out subversive ideas in universities and newspapers and form permanent committees with spies to investigate and punish liberal and radical organizations.

1848 Revolts

1848

Everyone wanted different things: Hungarians want liberal government, Italians want independence, Austrians want liberal government, and the bohemians want independence. Riots break out in Vienna, Metternich flees, and Franz Joseph comes in and squashes the whole thing, reasserting the acien regime.

France

Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

Issued by Francis I and kept France Catholic

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her incompetent sons in Italy, but she sucked as a politique, slaughtering Hugenots. Lots of them. You could call it a massacre.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 - 1573

Slaughtering of Hugenots, simply for their existence. The pope reacted by rewarding the messenger with a bag of gold.

Richelouis XIII

1610 - 1643

Louis gave pretty much all the power to Richelieu, who subsequently established the French Academy (which defined French language), strongly reigned in the nobles, hated Hapsburgs, and removed the walls around the delightfully tasty Huguenot pockets.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends tons of troops towards the Hapsburgs, who he considers too powerful. When all is said and done, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the State" He removed lavish lifestyle of nobles, forcing them into the Versaille, spent tons of money,and disallowed Huguenots to gather.

Wat of Spanish Succesion

1702 - 1713

Crazy Carlos 2 willed the throne to Louis's nephew and madness ensued. Through plenty of fighting, we get the treaty of Utrecht. Sorry guys, no Spance...

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

His lovely mistress, Madame de Pampadour, engaged in political salons. Louis XV was all over rococo art.

Montesquie

1748 - 1749

Spirit of Laws: nice Climate and three part government with checks and balances is the way to go.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia, but Britain won. France loses holds in colonies

Voltaire

1759 - 1760

He may not agree with what you say, but he'll defend your right to say it. As for the church, crush the thing!

Rousseau

1762 - 1763

Believed people should make decisions based on instinct and emotion, not logic and reason and is therefore considered "counter-enlightenment." Also he thought children should run freely to learn from the world by observation. Cool.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

His wife was the lovely if not unfortunate Marie Antoinette, who, due to her Austrian lineage and extravagant tendencies, was widely hated. Poor ol' Louis eventually lost his head, convicted of treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped Americans against the jolly ol' Brits. But they spent money they didn't have and went into debt.

National Assembly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

National convention had civil constitution of clergy, which put church under state control (BAD IDEA) and assignats were their paper currency. Eventually we get Abee Sieyes, a clergyman who helped formulate Napoleon's coup, which in turn lead to the constitutional monarchy of 1791.

1st REpublic of France

1792 - 1795

Essentially, we're looking at the scope of the French Rev. The Committee of Public Safety (hereafter referred to as COPS)functioned as the executive branch of the National Convention, holding perfunctory trials to convict and execute so-called "enemies of the Revolution". This killing craze is known as the Reign of Terror. The 1794 Thermidorian Reaction encompassed the overthrow of the COPS, Execution of Robespierre (head COP), and Establishment of the Directory

Director, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

Both the directory and oligarchy were ineffective and corrupt. So of course the only real decision here is Napoleon as first consul in the consulate constitution of 1799.

Napoleon

1799 - 1815

After staging a lovely coup, Napoleon gets right down to business with the Concordat of 1801, allowing Catholicism as an accepted, though not official religion of France, and also drafted up his ever controversial Napoleonic Code, which allowed for meritocracy. Sweet. Unfortunately, he grew a bit war happy, creating the Continental System as means of foreign policy (an embargo aimed at hurting the British), and developing a Spanish Ulcer during the midst of the Peninsular War (1808-12), started when Portugal refused to comply with the terms of the Continental System or the Napoleonic Code. He invaded Russia in the winter and understandably froze to death, forcing him to retreat, marking the beginning of the end. After being exiled to Elba, he escaped during the hundred days (1815), greeted with enthusiasm upon arrival. That enthusiasm died down when he lost big time at Waterloo (1815). He, too, died down, of stomach cancer at St. Helena.

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

Louis XVI's brother (Louis 17 died in prison; poor kid) Charter of 1814: maintained the Code, but added a chamber of deputies

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation. France's rep was the lovely Talleyrand (Lily Tomlin) and surprisingly they weren't treated all that badly. It was more of a routine wrist slapping with no catch-all punishments.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Major conservative who worke d to restore the acien regime. Issued July Ordinances which controlled printing presses, decreased number of voters, and dissolved the chamber of deputies. People weren't too happy (as you can imagine) and had their cute little July Revolutions.

Louis Phillippe

1830 - 1848

Ah, the "Citizen King" Though he increased voter number by lowering property requirements and abolished censorship, he ignored the demands of the urban worker, inciting rebellion in Paris

July Revolutions

1830 - 1831

Revolution against the conservative Charles X (think Les Miserables) The urban worker was your standard rebel here.

Provisional Government

1848

Louis Blanc vouched for gvt- provided employment via national workshops. Unfortunately there was little for these workshops to do and little money to support them, causing them to close down. This, of course (if we've learned anything about pattern), incites revolt.

June Days

1848

With no National workshops, people riot for socialism. A second republic soon took over.

February Revolt

1848

After Lou Phil outlawed public banquets, where politics were discussed, revolt ensued, relinquishing Lou's control of Paris. Provisional Coalition government takes over.

2nd Republic of France

1848 - 1852

Unicameral Government where all males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte headed the shindig as president (though he would later become Napoleon III). The whole ordeal was heavily influenced by socialism.

Holy Roman Empire

Gutenburg

1465

Had only the greatest invention of all time-- the printing press-- which allows for the rapid spread of texts and ideas.

Luther

1517

Believed salvation could be achieved by faith alone and that everyone was equal under the eyes of God. however he was a political conservative (On the Murderous and Thieving Hordes) advocating peasants to obey their superiors.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

The "Universal Monarch" From his maternal grandfather, he inherited Spain and its colonies and from his paternal side, he inherited the Hapsburgs land of Austria and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. When he died, his spanish empire went to son Philip II and the HRE went to brother Ferdinand.

Diet of Worms

1521

Big meeting called by Charles V, calling Luther and his meddling ways into question. They were about to arrest him with the Edict of Worms, but scoundrel got away, hiding with German princes.

German Peasants Revolt

1525

Peasants revolt against German princes, citing Luther's priesthood of all believers as justification of equality. Luther wouldn't have it, publishing On the Murderous and Thieving Horde in his wake.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Meeting of the church, presided by Julius III, in which they clean up corruption. Though they weren't perfect, they got rid of a lot of stuff like simony.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Catholic League versus German Princes. Protestants gain the right to be Lutheran.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

He who rules the land, rules the religion. German Princes could decide the religion of their people (as long as it was Lutheran or Catholic) Cuius regio, eius religio

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Religious wars: Calvinists vs. Catholics, but by the end it becomes a power struggle with everyone dogpiling on the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ends Thirty Years War, Religious settlement (adds Calvinism to the mix) Netherlands gets independence.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation. Poland ends up going to Alex I, who writes a constitution and promptly ignores it. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Concert of Europe (1815) was established whereby the great powers of Europe would periodically meet to resolve crises.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Prussia

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

The ever fearless "Soldier King" dubbed so for his particular obsession with tall soldiers and fondness for military display.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Between Prussia (Freddy II) and Austria (Maria Theresa). Frederick, not recognizing the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded with his super awesome military, walking away with Silesia. Maria Theresa would fight for Silesia in the seven year’s war. (Freddy gets to keep it though)

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Frederick II rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded the Austrian province of Silesia. He was also all for education reforms and such.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

It was Austria (Maria Teresa) and Austria’s allies vs. Prussia (Freddy II) and Prussia’s allies. Prussia won. Well technically Britain did too.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

leader of the Sturm und Drang (storm and stress) movement in the Germanic area. (essentially a proto-Romanticism movement)

George Friederick Hegel

1830

Believed history progress by conflict between thesis and antithesis. (Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences)

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

1848

Debate: Gross (Big Germany with Austria included) vs. Kleine Deutsch
(Little Germany; no Austria)

Frankfurt Assembly

1848

Wrote the New Constitution, which provided for an elected parliament and would unify the states as a German Empire. The Crown was offered to Crazy Fred Will 4, who rejected it, calling it a “crown from the gutter" because it was not offered by German princes.

Eras

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Humanism is the belief that human beings have the power to control their own destiny, ruling and inventing by their own hand rather than the hand of God. Comes from the Greek/ Romans

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Reformation

1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction& Romanticism

1815 - 1850

Italy

Political Organization: CITY STATES!!!
Risorgimento(Unification) : Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy, Young Italy wants Republic, Neo Guelfs want catholic theocracy

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Erupted (yes, erupted) in Florence.

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1469

Ruled by Lorenzo de Medici of the great Medici banking family (rivaled only by the Fuggers in banking awesomeness...), patron of the arts

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Controls pope's armies, invades, is overall ruthless. Machiavelli loved him because he was feared rather than loved.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Patron of the arts, awesome banking family, ruled behind the scenes

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was the Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of the Medici and Alexander VI. He got Florentines to follow him, but he was eventually burned at the stake.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Boomed in Rome

The Prince (Machiavelli)

1513

Describes how a prince should rule: with an iron fist, compromising morality where necessary.

End of High Renaissance

1527

Invasion of the HRE Charles V in 1527 (stops Humanist thought, hated Medici worldliness, etc)

The Courtier (Castiglioni)

1528

Outlines how the ideal renaissance man and woman should act.

Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems (Galileo)

1632

Basically reinforced Copernicus's theory of heliocentricism, stating and supporting it as truth

On Crime and Punishment (Cesare Beccaria)

1764

Ruled the death penalty as inhumane and called for better treatment of prisoners.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation
Italy was divided up and ruled by Austria. SUCKS.

Giuseppe Mazzini

1848

Led Young Italy in the quest for Italian Unification; wanted Democracy.

1848 Unification Failure

1848

TOO MANY SIDES to agree on anything. Apparently for unification to occur, you have to agree on stuff.