Vienna was the center of European music
the robot - 3 days of unpaid labor a week became the norm, many serfs worked everyday except Sunday
The Ottomans laid siege to Vienna. After two months the Turks were eventually forced back by fresh troops who had come to the aid of the Austrians. Day saved by King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski.
Issued Pragmatic Sanction, ensuring that a daughter-- Maria Theresa-- could inherit the throne, securing the Hapsburg line.
Had a bunch of daughters that she married off to form political alliances; Reduced Robot and increased freedom for serfs.
Between Prussia (Freddy II) and Austria (Maria Theresa). Frederick, not recognizing the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded with his super awesome military, walking away with Silesia. Maria Theresa would fight for Silesia in the seven year's war.
It was Austria (Maria Teresa) and Austria's allies vs. Prussia (Freddy II) and Prussia's allies. Prussia won. Well technically Britain did too.
MY MAN JOSEPH!!!! His mother was the ever lovely, well-meaning Maria Theresa. He did all sorts of fancy stuff like grant religious freedom (even jews), freedom for serfs, and freedom of speech. Unfortunately, he was a bit too radical for his time, most of his reforms undone after his death.
Austrian Rep in CoV. Hates liberalism and nationalism (he's super conservative) and used the German confederation to oppose these concepts (this is the Metternich System) Issues the Carlsbad Decrees which required German states to root out subversive ideas in universities and newspapers and form permanent committees with spies to investigate and punish liberal and radical organizations.
Everyone wanted different things: Hungarians want liberal government, Italians want independence, Austrians want liberal government, and the bohemians want independence. Riots break out in Vienna, Metternich flees, and Franz Joseph comes in and squashes the whole thing, reasserting the acien regime.
Issued by Francis I and kept France Catholic
She ruled for her incompetent sons in Italy, but she sucked as a politique, slaughtering Hugenots. Lots of them. You could call it a massacre.
Slaughtering of Hugenots, simply for their existence. The pope reacted by rewarding the messenger with a bag of gold.
Louis gave pretty much all the power to Richelieu, who subsequently established the French Academy (which defined French language), strongly reigned in the nobles, hated Hapsburgs, and removed the walls around the delightfully tasty Huguenot pockets.
Richelieu sends tons of troops towards the Hapsburgs, who he considers too powerful. When all is said and done, France is the strongest country in Europe.
"I am the State" He removed lavish lifestyle of nobles, forcing them into the Versaille, spent tons of money,and disallowed Huguenots to gather.
Crazy Carlos 2 willed the throne to Louis's nephew and madness ensued. Through plenty of fighting, we get the treaty of Utrecht. Sorry guys, no Spance...
His lovely mistress, Madame de Pampadour, engaged in political salons. Louis XV was all over rococo art.
Spirit of Laws: nice Climate and three part government with checks and balances is the way to go.
Austria vs Prussia, but Britain won. France loses holds in colonies
He may not agree with what you say, but he'll defend your right to say it. As for the church, crush the thing!
Believed people should make decisions based on instinct and emotion, not logic and reason and is therefore considered "counter-enlightenment." Also he thought children should run freely to learn from the world by observation. Cool.
His wife was the lovely if not unfortunate Marie Antoinette, who, due to her Austrian lineage and extravagant tendencies, was widely hated. Poor ol' Louis eventually lost his head, convicted of treason.
France helped Americans against the jolly ol' Brits. But they spent money they didn't have and went into debt.
National convention had civil constitution of clergy, which put church under state control (BAD IDEA) and assignats were their paper currency. Eventually we get Abee Sieyes, a clergyman who helped formulate Napoleon's coup, which in turn lead to the constitutional monarchy of 1791.
Essentially, we're looking at the scope of the French Rev. The Committee of Public Safety (hereafter referred to as COPS)functioned as the executive branch of the National Convention, holding perfunctory trials to convict and execute so-called "enemies of the Revolution". This killing craze is known as the Reign of Terror. The 1794 Thermidorian Reaction encompassed the overthrow of the COPS, Execution of Robespierre (head COP), and Establishment of the Directory
Both the directory and oligarchy were ineffective and corrupt. So of course the only real decision here is Napoleon as first consul in the consulate constitution of 1799.
After staging a lovely coup, Napoleon gets right down to business with the Concordat of 1801, allowing Catholicism as an accepted, though not official religion of France, and also drafted up his ever controversial Napoleonic Code, which allowed for meritocracy. Sweet. Unfortunately, he grew a bit war happy, creating the Continental System as means of foreign policy (an embargo aimed at hurting the British), and developing a Spanish Ulcer during the midst of the Peninsular War (1808-12), started when Portugal refused to comply with the terms of the Continental System or the Napoleonic Code. He invaded Russia in the winter and understandably froze to death, forcing him to retreat, marking the beginning of the end. After being exiled to Elba, he escaped during the hundred days (1815), greeted with enthusiasm upon arrival. That enthusiasm died down when he lost big time at Waterloo (1815). He, too, died down, of stomach cancer at St. Helena.
Louis XVI's brother (Louis 17 died in prison; poor kid) Charter of 1814: maintained the Code, but added a chamber of deputies
1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation. France's rep was the lovely Talleyrand (Lily Tomlin) and surprisingly they weren't treated all that badly. It was more of a routine wrist slapping with no catch-all punishments.
Major conservative who worke d to restore the acien regime. Issued July Ordinances which controlled printing presses, decreased number of voters, and dissolved the chamber of deputies. People weren't too happy (as you can imagine) and had their cute little July Revolutions.
Ah, the "Citizen King" Though he increased voter number by lowering property requirements and abolished censorship, he ignored the demands of the urban worker, inciting rebellion in Paris
Revolution against the conservative Charles X (think Les Miserables) The urban worker was your standard rebel here.
Louis Blanc vouched for gvt- provided employment via national workshops. Unfortunately there was little for these workshops to do and little money to support them, causing them to close down. This, of course (if we've learned anything about pattern), incites revolt.
With no National workshops, people riot for socialism. A second republic soon took over.
After Lou Phil outlawed public banquets, where politics were discussed, revolt ensued, relinquishing Lou's control of Paris. Provisional Coalition government takes over.
Unicameral Government where all males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte headed the shindig as president (though he would later become Napoleon III). The whole ordeal was heavily influenced by socialism.
Had only the greatest invention of all time-- the printing press-- which allows for the rapid spread of texts and ideas.
Believed salvation could be achieved by faith alone and that everyone was equal under the eyes of God. however he was a political conservative (On the Murderous and Thieving Hordes) advocating peasants to obey their superiors.
The "Universal Monarch" From his maternal grandfather, he inherited Spain and its colonies and from his paternal side, he inherited the Hapsburgs land of Austria and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. When he died, his spanish empire went to son Philip II and the HRE went to brother Ferdinand.
Big meeting called by Charles V, calling Luther and his meddling ways into question. They were about to arrest him with the Edict of Worms, but scoundrel got away, hiding with German princes.
Peasants revolt against German princes, citing Luther's priesthood of all believers as justification of equality. Luther wouldn't have it, publishing On the Murderous and Thieving Horde in his wake.
Meeting of the church, presided by Julius III, in which they clean up corruption. Though they weren't perfect, they got rid of a lot of stuff like simony.
Catholic League versus German Princes. Protestants gain the right to be Lutheran.
He who rules the land, rules the religion. German Princes could decide the religion of their people (as long as it was Lutheran or Catholic) Cuius regio, eius religio
Religious wars: Calvinists vs. Catholics, but by the end it becomes a power struggle with everyone dogpiling on the Hapsburgs.
Ends Thirty Years War, Religious settlement (adds Calvinism to the mix) Netherlands gets independence.
1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation. Poland ends up going to Alex I, who writes a constitution and promptly ignores it. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Concert of Europe (1815) was established whereby the great powers of Europe would periodically meet to resolve crises.
The ever fearless "Soldier King" dubbed so for his particular obsession with tall soldiers and fondness for military display.
Between Prussia (Freddy II) and Austria (Maria Theresa). Frederick, not recognizing the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded with his super awesome military, walking away with Silesia. Maria Theresa would fight for Silesia in the seven year’s war. (Freddy gets to keep it though)
Frederick II rejected the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded the Austrian province of Silesia. He was also all for education reforms and such.
It was Austria (Maria Teresa) and Austria’s allies vs. Prussia (Freddy II) and Prussia’s allies. Prussia won. Well technically Britain did too.
leader of the Sturm und Drang (storm and stress) movement in the Germanic area. (essentially a proto-Romanticism movement)
Believed history progress by conflict between thesis and antithesis. (Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences)
Debate: Gross (Big Germany with Austria included) vs. Kleine Deutsch
(Little Germany; no Austria)
Wrote the New Constitution, which provided for an elected parliament and would unify the states as a German Empire. The Crown was offered to Crazy Fred Will 4, who rejected it, calling it a “crown from the gutter" because it was not offered by German princes.
Humanism is the belief that human beings have the power to control their own destiny, ruling and inventing by their own hand rather than the hand of God. Comes from the Greek/ Romans
Political Organization: CITY STATES!!!
Risorgimento(Unification) : Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy, Young Italy wants Republic, Neo Guelfs want catholic theocracy
Erupted (yes, erupted) in Florence.
Ruled by Lorenzo de Medici of the great Medici banking family (rivaled only by the Fuggers in banking awesomeness...), patron of the arts
Controls pope's armies, invades, is overall ruthless. Machiavelli loved him because he was feared rather than loved.
Patron of the arts, awesome banking family, ruled behind the scenes
He was the Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of the Medici and Alexander VI. He got Florentines to follow him, but he was eventually burned at the stake.
Boomed in Rome
Describes how a prince should rule: with an iron fist, compromising morality where necessary.
Invasion of the HRE Charles V in 1527 (stops Humanist thought, hated Medici worldliness, etc)
Outlines how the ideal renaissance man and woman should act.
Basically reinforced Copernicus's theory of heliocentricism, stating and supporting it as truth
Ruled the death penalty as inhumane and called for better treatment of prisoners.
1) Balance of Power, 2) Legitimacy (return of Legitimate monarchs) 3) Compensation
Italy was divided up and ruled by Austria. SUCKS.
Led Young Italy in the quest for Italian Unification; wanted Democracy.
TOO MANY SIDES to agree on anything. Apparently for unification to occur, you have to agree on stuff.