1400 - 1600

Humanism: a movement during the Renaissance that says that humans are basically good and capable of things (this is wildly different from the medieval view.)

Age Of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enligtenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850



Concordat of Bologna

1/1/1516 - 12/31/1516

Francis I, kept France Catholic, French kings recognized church's power over church councils

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

ruled for her incompetent sons, tried to be a boutique but failed because she ordered a bunch of Hugenautes to die.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacare

1/1/1572 - 2/1/1572

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth the mass." He converted to Catholicism to win the people over,Started Huguenot pockets, died by stabbing

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

Richelieu took everything from everyone (Nobles, Hapsburg, Huguenot), French Academy decides how French sound/works,

Thiry Years War

1618 - 1648

By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe, Louis XIII sent troop because he hated Hapburgs

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the the state", Spent lots of money on his huge house and stupid wars, Enforced Catholicism, forced nobles to live in his nice house,

War of Spanish Succesion

1702 - 1713

Carlos II will Span to France on his deathbed because he was crazy, Spain won- no Spance

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Mistress: Madame de Pompadore, Roccco


1/1/1748 - 1/2/1748

Spirit of Laws pub. 1748, Three branches of government, liked English government, weather

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria V. Prussia, Brittan won, France lost


1/1/1759 - 1/2/1759

Candide pub. 1759, "i do not agree with what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it"


1/1/1762 - 1/2/1762

social Contract pub. 1762, Noble Savages, Emile pub. 1762, children should learn by experience,

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

was executed for treason, wife was Marie Antoinette people did not like her because they thought she spent too much

American Revoltion

1776 - 1783

France help to get back at England, It bankrupt them

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Steyes- wrote what is the third estate?, Constriction of 1791,

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

Reign of Terror led by Robespierre, a crackdown on 'counterevolutonary ideas' that cause excessive death in Paris, Thermidorian reaction was the revolt of the french peasants that led Robespierre's death.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801- agreement w/ Pope Pius VII made France Catholic, Napoleonic Code was enlightened because it gave voting right to all men and made classes equal among other things, he invaded Russia but lost due to winter, He ruled for 100 days after returning from exile and was eventually defeated at Waterloo


1814 - 1824

Louis XVI's brother,

Congresss of Vienna

1815 - 1820

France was treated leniently, considering they took all of Europe over, Talleyrand represented France, three main goals: est. balance of power, prevent Revs., each nations's goals

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative, July Ordinances case all kinds of problems

July Revolutions

1/1/1830 - 1/2/1830

Against Charles X, Angry and poor peasants barricaded streets

Louis Phillip

1830 - 1848

Called the CITIZEN KING. ignored urban workers and caused the rev. of 1848

February Revolt

2/1/1848 - 2/28/1848

against Louis Phillip, a socialist govt. emerged

Provisional Government

03/01/1848 - 05/01/1848

Louis Blanch- French socialist who wanted National workshop to keep people in money. Failed due to lack of sunds

June Days

06/01/1848 - 06/05/1848

National workshops forced to close due to lack of money

2nd French Republic

06/01/1848 - 1852

socialism, all males could vote, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte,

Holy Roman Empire


1/1/1465 - 12/31/1465

Invented the printing press


1/1/1517 - 12/31/1517

Priesthood of all believers- all people equal in faith, Political conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch, Spanish and German Hapsburg willed lands to him, Spain to son and Germany to brother

diet of worms

1/1/1521 - 12/31/1521

Emperor wanted him to recant, he did not,.

German Peasants revolt

1/1/1525 - 12/31/1525

Said that if people are equal in faith , they must be equal everywhere else. not the case

Schmalkaldic War

1545 - 1548

Charles V, Spain, & HRE faught

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Meeting to reform Catholic Church

Peace of Augsburg

1/1/1555 - 12/31/1555

People can be Lutheran or Catholic (not Calvinist)

Thrity Years War

1618 - 1648

religion turns to power struggle. Calvinist V. Catholics, but by end- everyone V. Hapsburg

Peace of Westphalia

1/1/1648 - 12/31/1648

Ended thirty years war, Allowed to be Calvanist

Seven Years

1756 - 1763

Austria V. Prussia and also England V. France. England won, France lost

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mom was Maria Teresa, Abolished Serfdom, Religious freedom, liked Jews, church under him

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Veinna

1815 - 1820

1) Balance of power 2) restore monarchy 3)
prevent future french aggression, Prussian rep, Hardenberg, Russia took most of Poland

German Confederation

1815 - 1871


The Robot where the required work day and also Vienna was a center of music

Battle of Vienna

1/1/1683 - 12/31/1683

Ottoman church tries to take Vienna, Jan Soveski

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction- said throne could pass to his daughter, Maria Teresa

Maria Teresa

1740 - 1780

reduced robot, helps serfs, chained people to fences for having sex

War of Austrian Succesion

1740 - 1748

Austria V. Prussia, Prussia won and kept Silesia


1821 - 1824

1848 Revolts

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

People either want a new constitution or Independence, Metternich flees and Austria is given to Franz Joseph, who brutally represses rebellion


Fredrick William I

1713 - 1740

called Soldier King because he militarized Prussia,

war of Austrian Succesion

1740 - 1748

Prussia V. Austria, Prussia wins and Silesia stays with them :(

Fredrick William II

1740 - 1786

Ignored the pragmatic sanction, encouraged trade, lowered taxes,

Seven years War

1756 - 1763

Austria V. Prussia and also England V. France, England won, France lost

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

German philosopher, poet, and literary critic. wrote Treatise on the Origin of Language

George Friederick Hegel

1/1/1830 - 1/2/1830

Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, said history progresses through conflicts

Große V. Kleins Deutsch Debate

1840 - 1845

Große Deutsch- all german states including Austria should be unified
Kleins Deutsch- All states but Austria should be unified

Frankfurt Assembly

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

people wanted new constitution, the offered crown to Fredrick William but he rejected it because he said it was "a crown from the gutter"


The political structure is as follows: many city-states with it's own princes have people loyal to the area as opposed to Italy. They compete constantly as so the Renaissance is born

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Begins in Florance and flourishes in Rome

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1469

Medicis ruled and their power came from their money

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Illegitimate son of pope. Machiavelli wanted him to rule Rome/ Italy

Lorezo Medici

1478 - 1492

He was a member of the prestigious Medici banking family, he ruled Florance for a while

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

A Dominican monk who ran the Medicis out of Florance

High Renassance

1500 - 1527

in Rome


1/1/1513 - 1/2/1513

It says that Borgia should rule, but it also says lays out how a prince should act and rule

End of Italian Renassiance

1/1/1527 - 12/31/1527

The HRE invaded :(


1/1/1528 - 1/2/1528

said how people should act in court


1/1/1632 - 1/2/1632

Said that the earth orbited the sun and the catholic church went crazy.

Ceasre Borgia

1/1/1764 - 1/2/1764

Said that prsoners should be treated humanly

Congress of Veinna

1815 - 1820

1) balance of power 2) Punish France 3) prevent reovlutions


1820 - 1830

wanted Italian unification, Neo Guelf wanted pope to rule, Young Italy wanted a republic, and Sardinians wanted a constitutional monarchy


1/1/1848 - 1/1/1849

unsuccessful because no one could agree what they wanted

Giuseppe Mazini

1/1/1848 - 1/1/1849

led Young Italy, wanted a repulic