Allowed France to appoint Bishops. And made France Catholic.
She ruled for her incompetent sons and attempted to be a politique but failed to be one. Issue St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Massacre of Protestant Huguenots by Medici. Pope responded with praise!
Formerly Henry of Navarre. "Paris is well worth the Mass". He flip flopped to gain approval of the people. Edict of Nantes protected Huguenots by est. fortified cities with their majority. He didn't care about his religion often flip flopped. Killed by a religious zealot.
Turned power over to Richelieu. French Academy which wrote a dictionary. Torn down noble castles and never called Estates General. F aught Hapsburgs in 30 years war. Took away fortifications in Huguenot cities.
Richelieu sent French troops to combat Huguenots. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe"
"I am the state". He spent all da monies on Versailles and headed French Church, made nobles live in Versailles which made them disconnected with what is going on. Revoked Edict of Nantes.
Netherlands succeeded from Spanish rule. Netherlands I think won.
3 branches of gov. and checks and balances. Like England's Gov.
Austria v. Prussia. Treaty of Paris(1763) - Br. get French colonies in N. America
Pushed for freedom of speech and hated the Catholic church.
Emile-Children should learn on their own
wishy washy. Marie Antoinette was his wife she was a rich snob. He was executed for treason.
France helped because they hate Britain, this bankrupted France.
Abee Sieyes was a pamphlet that rally the french people. Assignats where the money backed by the church lands. Civil Const of the Clergy brought the catholic church under the new Fr. gov. Constitution of 1791 made France a constitutional monarchy.
National Convention- was France's republic gov
Committee of Pup. Safety- Robes Pierre led this group which controlled through fear
Riegn of Terror- Robes Pierre's strategy of control through fear
Thermidorian Reacion- Reaction to Robes pierre's death
Concor of 1801- est 3 leaders for France
Nap Code allowed more freedom to all classes
Continental Sys- system of blocking the British of trade to European Countries
Penn War- Spain revolted against Napoleon
Inv of Russia- France losses by scorched earth policy
Hundred Days- Napoleon's return after exile
Waterloo- Napoleon's final defeat
Charter of 1814 const written by COV
Divide up France's land. Talley Rand
Conservative, July Ordinances reduced # of people allowed to vote
Against Charles X. Peasant made barricades in street for tactical cover.
Citizen King. the Bourgeoisie Monarcy, he gave more thing to citizens
Democratic Republic, all men could vote, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was president, influenced by Socialism
Riots against the natl workshops. Elected official gov
Louis Blanc created the natl workshops
against Louis Philippe, French republic took over
Renaissance, he allowed mass publication of literary works
Salvation through Faith- you just gotta believe
Priesthood of all believers- no clergy hierarchy everyone is equal under God
Beliefs on government- conservative
Universal Monarch, he inherited most of the land, he divide the lands between his brother and son
Catholic tribunal for Luther asking him to recant. issued Edict of Worms which called for Luther to be a wanted fugitive
Peasant were inspired by Luther to overthrow ruling class. Luther responded by rejecting the rev. b/c he was protected by nobles
Called together leaders of Catholic church to reform the church. It led to much improvement.
Charles V v. the Schmalkaldic League. Spanish Imperial victory and league dissolved
Allowed protestant worship and allowed rulers to select religion of their land. Curus regio, eius religio
Protestant States v. Catholic states. Started in the Bohemian States. Richelieu wanted to end da Hapsburgs
Allowed Calvinist worship. Created Netherlands states
3 goals 1) prevent future French aggression,
2) restore the balance of power and
3) to restore Europe's royal family back to the thrones they held before Napoleon's conquest.
Poland was a great dispute almost caused war
Extended standard work day in a week
Ottoman Empire attack Holy Roman Empire. Polish Calvary saved the day.
Est. Pragmatic Sanction which insured the hereditary heir to the throne of Austria.
Frederick II (Prussia) invaded Maria Theresa (Austria). Prussia won (I think). Prussia secured Selesia
created a centralized government, split Austria into 10 units, and reduce the amount of work that can be demanded by landowners
Great Britain v. Bourbons (Spain and France). Britain Won.
Ruled jointly with Maria Theresa (Mother) until her death. Abolished serfdom, granted peasants the right to learn skills, marry, and educate their children. Issued Toleration Patent (1781) religious toleration.
Francis I (1821-35), Ferdinand I (1835-48).
Carlsbad Decrees- can't say anything against the state.
Hates liberals and nationalism
People wanted participation and democracy, Austro-Hungarian Compromise (1867) led to the unification of Hungary and Austria, Russian Tsar Nicholas put the rebellion down.
"The Soldier King"- b/c he completely militarized Prussia.
Prussia invades Austria. Prussia losses, Prussia claims Silesia.
Abolished serfdom, made bureaucracy of educated civil-servants, eliminated torture and abandoned capital punishment, and protected religious minorities (except Jews). Violated Pragmatic sanction and invaded Austria.
Britain v Bourbons. Frederic the Grate helps Britain win.
He was a Romantic writer who was against reason and more about emotion. Helped spurn Romanticism in Europe.
Debate over the best way to unify Germany.
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- history is based on series of conflicts and resolutions.
Wanted a constitutional monarchy. Wanted Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to rule, he refused because he didn't want a constitution.
City-States ruled by wealthy Merchants.
Began in Venice.
Ruled by the Medici family, because it was wealthy and center for Mediterranean train.
He ruled several city-states. Admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy and ruled like a new monarch.
Ruler of Florence who made it focused on beauty and Renaissance.
Focused more on human achievement more that religious.
He criticized the Catholic church and uncovered false claims to church lands. He burned at the stake.
Height of Renaissance was in Rome.
The Prince- better to be feared than loved.
Invasion of Charles V.
Book of the Courtier- established the benchmark for the Renaissance Man.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems- he est. that the solar system is heliocentric. Church forced him to recant cuz he is a pussy.
ON Crime and Punishment- against capital punishment.
Unification of Italy. Guiseppi Mazzini's group- wanted democracy.
Sardinians- wanted const. monarchy. Neo Guelfs- wanted Cath. theocracy.
It divided up chunks of Italy.
None of the groups unified so it was unsuccessful.
Heart of the Italian Unification. Young Italy Group. Wanted Democracy.