Europe 1516-1852

Basic Historical Eras


1400 - 1600

Age of Exloration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Balogna


Allowed France to appoint Bishops. And made France Catholic.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her incompetent sons and attempted to be a politique but failed to be one. Issue St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Massacre of Protestant Huguenots by Medici. Pope responded with praise!

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Formerly Henry of Navarre. "Paris is well worth the Mass". He flip flopped to gain approval of the people. Edict of Nantes protected Huguenots by est. fortified cities with their majority. He didn't care about his religion often flip flopped. Killed by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1610 - 1642

Turned power over to Richelieu. French Academy which wrote a dictionary. Torn down noble castles and never called Estates General. F aught Hapsburgs in 30 years war. Took away fortifications in Huguenot cities.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent French troops to combat Huguenots. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe"

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state". He spent all da monies on Versailles and headed French Church, made nobles live in Versailles which made them disconnected with what is going on. Revoked Edict of Nantes.

War of Spanish Succesion

1702 - 1713

Netherlands succeeded from Spanish rule. Netherlands I think won.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774


Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)


3 branches of gov. and checks and balances. Like England's Gov.

Seven Yeas War

1756 - 1763

Austria v. Prussia. Treaty of Paris(1763) - Br. get French colonies in N. America

Voltaire (Candid)


Pushed for freedom of speech and hated the Catholic church.



Social Contract-
Emile-Children should learn on their own
against family.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

wishy washy. Marie Antoinette was his wife she was a rich snob. He was executed for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped because they hate Britain, this bankrupted France.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes was a pamphlet that rally the french people. Assignats where the money backed by the church lands. Civil Const of the Clergy brought the catholic church under the new Fr. gov. Constitution of 1791 made France a constitutional monarchy.

1st french Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention- was France's republic gov
Committee of Pup. Safety- Robes Pierre led this group which controlled through fear
Riegn of Terror- Robes Pierre's strategy of control through fear
Thermidorian Reacion- Reaction to Robes pierre's death


1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

Concor of 1801- est 3 leaders for France
Nap Code allowed more freedom to all classes
Continental Sys- system of blocking the British of trade to European Countries
Penn War- Spain revolted against Napoleon
Inv of Russia- France losses by scorched earth policy
Hundred Days- Napoleon's return after exile
Waterloo- Napoleon's final defeat


1814 - 1824

Charter of 1814 const written by COV

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Divide up France's land. Talley Rand

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative, July Ordinances reduced # of people allowed to vote

July Rev


Against Charles X. Peasant made barricades in street for tactical cover.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Citizen King. the Bourgeoisie Monarcy, he gave more thing to citizens

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Democratic Republic, all men could vote, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was president, influenced by Socialism

June Days


Riots against the natl workshops. Elected official gov

Provisional Gov.


Louis Blanc created the natl workshops

Feburary Revolt


against Louis Philippe, French republic took over

Holy Roman Empire



Renaissance, he allowed mass publication of literary works



Salvation through Faith- you just gotta believe
Priesthood of all believers- no clergy hierarchy everyone is equal under God
Beliefs on government- conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556
Universal Monarch, he inherited most of the land, he divide the lands between his brother and son

Diet of Worms


Catholic tribunal for Luther asking him to recant. issued Edict of Worms which called for Luther to be a wanted fugitive

German Peasants revolt


Peasant were inspired by Luther to overthrow ruling class. Luther responded by rejecting the rev. b/c he was protected by nobles

Concil of Trent

1545 - 1563

Called together leaders of Catholic church to reform the church. It led to much improvement.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Charles V v. the Schmalkaldic League. Spanish Imperial victory and league dissolved

Peace of Augsburg


Allowed protestant worship and allowed rulers to select religion of their land. Curus regio, eius religio

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Protestant States v. Catholic states. Started in the Bohemian States. Richelieu wanted to end da Hapsburgs

Peace of Westphalia

Allowed Calvinist worship. Created Netherlands states

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals 1) prevent future French aggression,
2) restore the balance of power and
3) to restore Europe's royal family back to the thrones they held before Napoleon's conquest.

Poland was a great dispute almost caused war




Extended standard work day in a week

Battle of Vienna


Ottoman Empire attack Holy Roman Empire. Polish Calvary saved the day.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Est. Pragmatic Sanction which insured the hereditary heir to the throne of Austria.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II (Prussia) invaded Maria Theresa (Austria). Prussia won (I think). Prussia secured Selesia

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

created a centralized government, split Austria into 10 units, and reduce the amount of work that can be demanded by landowners

Vienna as the center for European music


Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Great Britain v. Bourbons (Spain and France). Britain Won.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Ruled jointly with Maria Theresa (Mother) until her death. Abolished serfdom, granted peasants the right to learn skills, marry, and educate their children. Issued Toleration Patent (1781) religious toleration.


1821 - 1848

Francis I (1821-35), Ferdinand I (1835-48).
Carlsbad Decrees- can't say anything against the state.
Hates liberals and nationalism

1848 Revolts


People wanted participation and democracy, Austro-Hungarian Compromise (1867) led to the unification of Hungary and Austria, Russian Tsar Nicholas put the rebellion down.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

"The Soldier King"- b/c he completely militarized Prussia.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia invades Austria. Prussia losses, Prussia claims Silesia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Abolished serfdom, made bureaucracy of educated civil-servants, eliminated torture and abandoned capital punishment, and protected religious minorities (except Jews). Violated Pragmatic sanction and invaded Austria.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Britain v Bourbons. Frederic the Grate helps Britain win.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He was a Romantic writer who was against reason and more about emotion. Helped spurn Romanticism in Europe.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate


Debate over the best way to unify Germany.

George Friederick Hegel


Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- history is based on series of conflicts and resolutions.

Frankfurt Assembly


Wanted a constitutional monarchy. Wanted Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to rule, he refused because he didn't want a constitution.


Political Organization of Italy

1450 - 1500

City-States ruled by wealthy Merchants.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Venice.

Prestige of Florence


Ruled by the Medici family, because it was wealthy and center for Mediterranean train.

Cesare Borgia

1475 - 1507

He ruled several city-states. Admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy and ruled like a new monarch.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruler of Florence who made it focused on beauty and Renaissance.



Focused more on human achievement more that religious.

Frair Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He criticized the Catholic church and uncovered false claims to church lands. He burned at the stake.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Height of Renaissance was in Rome.



The Prince- better to be feared than loved.

End of Italian Rennaissance


Invasion of Charles V.



Book of the Courtier- established the benchmark for the Renaissance Man.



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems- he est. that the solar system is heliocentric. Church forced him to recant cuz he is a pussy.

Cesare Baccaria


ON Crime and Punishment- against capital punishment.



Unification of Italy. Guiseppi Mazzini's group- wanted democracy.
Sardinians- wanted const. monarchy. Neo Guelfs- wanted Cath. theocracy.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

It divided up chunks of Italy.



None of the groups unified so it was unsuccessful.

Giuseppe Mazzini


Heart of the Italian Unification. Young Italy Group. Wanted Democracy.