Allowed France to appoint Bishops. And made France Catholic.
Catherine de Medici
1559 - 1589
She ruled for her incompetent sons and attempted to be a politique but failed to be one. Issue St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Massacre of Protestant Huguenots by Medici. Pope responded with praise!
1589 - 1610
Formerly Henry of Navarre. "Paris is well worth the Mass". He flip flopped to gain approval of the people. Edict of Nantes protected Huguenots by est. fortified cities with their majority. He didn't care about his religion often flip flopped. Killed by a religious zealot.
Louis XIII/ Richelieu
1610 - 1642
Turned power over to Richelieu. French Academy which wrote a dictionary. Torn down noble castles and never called Estates General. F aught Hapsburgs in 30 years war. Took away fortifications in Huguenot cities.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Richelieu sent French troops to combat Huguenots. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe"
1643 - 1715
"I am the state". He spent all da monies on Versailles and headed French Church, made nobles live in Versailles which made them disconnected with what is going on. Revoked Edict of Nantes.
War of Spanish Succesion
1702 - 1713
Netherlands succeeded from Spanish rule. Netherlands I think won.
1715 - 1774
Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)
3 branches of gov. and checks and balances. Like England's Gov.
Seven Yeas War
1756 - 1763
Austria v. Prussia. Treaty of Paris(1763) - Br. get French colonies in N. America
Pushed for freedom of speech and hated the Catholic church.
Emile-Children should learn on their own
1774 - 1792
wishy washy. Marie Antoinette was his wife she was a rich snob. He was executed for treason.
1776 - 1783
France helped because they hate Britain, this bankrupted France.
National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly
1789 - 1791
Abee Sieyes was a pamphlet that rally the french people. Assignats where the money backed by the church lands. Civil Const of the Clergy brought the catholic church under the new Fr. gov. Constitution of 1791 made France a constitutional monarchy.
1st french Republic
1792 - 1795
National Convention- was France's republic gov
Committee of Pup. Safety- Robes Pierre led this group which controlled through fear
Riegn of Terror- Robes Pierre's strategy of control through fear
Thermidorian Reacion- Reaction to Robes pierre's death
1795 - 1799
1799 - 1815
Concor of 1801- est 3 leaders for France
Nap Code allowed more freedom to all classes
Continental Sys- system of blocking the British of trade to European Countries
Penn War- Spain revolted against Napoleon
Inv of Russia- France losses by scorched earth policy
Hundred Days- Napoleon's return after exile
Waterloo- Napoleon's final defeat
1814 - 1824
Charter of 1814 const written by COV
Congress of Vienna
1815 - 1820
Divide up France's land. Talley Rand
1824 - 1830
Conservative, July Ordinances reduced # of people allowed to vote
Against Charles X. Peasant made barricades in street for tactical cover.
1830 - 1848
Citizen King. the Bourgeoisie Monarcy, he gave more thing to citizens
2nd French Republic
1848 - 1852
Democratic Republic, all men could vote, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was president, influenced by Socialism
Riots against the natl workshops. Elected official gov
Louis Blanc created the natl workshops
against Louis Philippe, French republic took over
Holy Roman Empire
Renaissance, he allowed mass publication of literary works
Salvation through Faith- you just gotta believe
Priesthood of all believers- no clergy hierarchy everyone is equal under God
Beliefs on government- conservative
3 goals 1) prevent future French aggression,
2) restore the balance of power and
3) to restore Europe's royal family back to the thrones they held before Napoleon's conquest.
Poland was a great dispute almost caused war
Extended standard work day in a week
Battle of Vienna
Ottoman Empire attack Holy Roman Empire. Polish Calvary saved the day.
1711 - 1740
Est. Pragmatic Sanction which insured the hereditary heir to the throne of Austria.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
Frederick II (Prussia) invaded Maria Theresa (Austria). Prussia won (I think). Prussia secured Selesia
1740 - 1780
created a centralized government, split Austria into 10 units, and reduce the amount of work that can be demanded by landowners
Vienna as the center for European music
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Great Britain v. Bourbons (Spain and France). Britain Won.
1765 - 1790
Ruled jointly with Maria Theresa (Mother) until her death. Abolished serfdom, granted peasants the right to learn skills, marry, and educate their children. Issued Toleration Patent (1781) religious toleration.
1821 - 1848
Francis I (1821-35), Ferdinand I (1835-48).
Carlsbad Decrees- can't say anything against the state.
Hates liberals and nationalism
People wanted participation and democracy, Austro-Hungarian Compromise (1867) led to the unification of Hungary and Austria, Russian Tsar Nicholas put the rebellion down.
Frederick William I
1713 - 1740
"The Soldier King"- b/c he completely militarized Prussia.
Abolished serfdom, made bureaucracy of educated civil-servants, eliminated torture and abandoned capital punishment, and protected religious minorities (except Jews). Violated Pragmatic sanction and invaded Austria.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Britain v Bourbons. Frederic the Grate helps Britain win.
1780 - 1790
He was a Romantic writer who was against reason and more about emotion. Helped spurn Romanticism in Europe.
Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate
Debate over the best way to unify Germany.
George Friederick Hegel
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- history is based on series of conflicts and resolutions.
Wanted a constitutional monarchy. Wanted Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to rule, he refused because he didn't want a constitution.
Political Organization of Italy
1450 - 1500
City-States ruled by wealthy Merchants.
1450 - 1500
Began in Venice.
Prestige of Florence
Ruled by the Medici family, because it was wealthy and center for Mediterranean train.
1475 - 1507
He ruled several city-states. Admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy and ruled like a new monarch.
Lorenzo de Medici
1478 - 1492
Ruler of Florence who made it focused on beauty and Renaissance.
Focused more on human achievement more that religious.
1494 - 1498
He criticized the Catholic church and uncovered false claims to church lands. He burned at the stake.
1500 - 1527
Height of Renaissance was in Rome.
The Prince- better to be feared than loved.
End of Italian Rennaissance
Invasion of Charles V.
Book of the Courtier- established the benchmark for the Renaissance Man.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems- he est. that the solar system is heliocentric. Church forced him to recant cuz he is a pussy.
ON Crime and Punishment- against capital punishment.