Timeline for Lots of European Countries



1400 - 1600


Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


Francis the first and Pope Leo X. Kept France Catholic but French kings could appoint bishops while the Pope had authority over the Church Councils.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her sons since they were incompetent. She wasn't successful at being a politique because of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine sent soldiers to kill Huguenot guests of the wedding of Henry Bourbon. Pope loved it and gave the messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass", Edict of Nantes let Huguenots worship in areas of majority. He was a politique because he worried more about running the country than religion. Killed by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Absolute monarch with Richelieu having a lot of power. He created the French Academy to standardize languages, dictionary. Controled the nobles by getting rid of their castles and their lifestyle. Hated the Hapsburgs and fought with Protestants in 30 years war. Got rid of the Huguenots walls. No more political or military power.

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent French troops to help the Protestants in the Netherlands defeat the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, Frances is the strongest county in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state. Bad at economics because he spent lots of money on Versailles. Revoked the Edict of Nantes. Controlled the nobles by having them live at Versailles. Controlled the Huguenots by making them convert.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Philip of Anjou of France was appointed as heir to the Spanish throne by Charles II. All the other Euro countries were mad because they didn't want Spance. Spance was forever forbidden. Treaty of Utrech

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame du Pompador ran a salon in Paris. Roccoco art.



Spirit of Laws. 3 branches.

Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

On the continent- Prussia vs. Austria. Off the Continent it was Britain vs. France. Outcome for France- loses Colonial possesions.



Candide, defends free speech. Hated the Catholic Church but liked freedom of worship.



Social Contract, Gov should respect the General Will of the public. Emile- children should discover education by going out into the world. Against Enlightenment because he was about emotion and nature.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Indecisive, Marie Antoinette- French hated her because she didn't understand their lifestyle. He was executed for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped to hurt Britain. Killed French economics because they spent so much money.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abbe Sieyes- wrote What is the Third Estate, Assignats were the money, Civil Const. of the Clergy- took over church lands and stopped the practice of Catholicism. Constriction of 1791 (Constitutional Monarchy) -

1st French Repulic

1792 - 1795

National Convention-legislative body, made bad laws, Committee of Public Safety- basically controlled everything, Reign of Terror-thousands died, Thermidorian Reaction- killed Robespierre because he was horrible.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

Stable but didn't get much done. Kind of crappy.


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 let Catholics practice, Napoleonic Code made all men equal and easier to read. Continental System was aimed against Britain to stop trade with the isle. French and Italy, dependent states, and allied states. Peninsular war (1808-1812) Spanish used guerrilla forces. Invasion of Russia failed. Hundred Days-he came back. Waterloo finished him forever.


1814 - 1824

Brother of Louis XVI, Charter of 1814 was the constitution he brought. Constitutional Monarchy

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of Power, restore monarchs, prevent French aggression. Talleyrand represented France. Was treated pretty well overall. Harsher after the 100 days

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative, July Ordinances suspended freedom of the press, dissolved the elected chamber, stopped the middle class from voting. The people revolted.

July Ordinances


Against Charles X, the barricades were put up by workers and students.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

called the Citizen King, ignored workers, and caused rev or 1848

June Days


4 days in June, rioting against the closing of the workshops, new constitution with a president

Provisional Government (March-May)


Louis Blanc was a politician, socialist, wanted gov. workshops. They failed because there wasn't enough work.

1848 Revolts


The people wanted more freedom, the gov was taking away rights. The conservative aristocracy put it down.

February Revolt

February, 1848

against the bourgeoisie by the workers. The second republic started,

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

Republic, Napoleon III, only men could vote. Socialist.

Holy Roman Empire



He invented the printing press

Martin Luther


You could have salvation through faith alone, the Priesthood of all believers meant that all were equal in the eyes of God. Gov. should keep peasants in line.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch, he got it from both sides of the Hapsburgs (Spanish and German). Split the lands between his son and Ferdinand I.

Diet of Worms


Luther should recant his teaches, he said no.

German Peasants Revolt


They used the Priesthood of all believers to justify them wanted equal standing in government. He said no you shall be subbordinate.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council to reform the Catholic Church. Reaffirmed salvation through Faith and Good works. Helped but protestantism was very strong.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Charles V vs the lutherans in the hre. The princes won right to choose religion. Catholic rulers vs. lutheran princes.

Peace Of Augsburg


Said that the princes (rulers) of an area could choose the religion for the people within the area.

Cuius regio, eius religio

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Catholic countries vs. Protestant areas and ends with chaos. Everyone vs. hapsburgs. France stepped it to help the Protestants because they hated the Hapsburgs. Started because of the Defenstration of Prague. Two Catholic guys said don't be lutheran and they were thrown out the window.

Peace of Westphalia


Recognized the Dutch Republic, Can be Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of power, restore monarchies, prevent future French aggression. Russia got a lot of Poland, They danced and partied- Concert of Europe


Robot- required days of work for peasants.
Vienna as the center of European Music- tons of musicians work in or travel to.

Battle of Vienna


Ottomans tried to take over, they got as far as this and then JanSobeski- polish dude

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction so that his daughter could become queen and keep the lands.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia, Prussia tried to take Silesia and Austria wanted it back.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

She helped the serfs, reduced the robot.

Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

England vs. France of the Continent and Austria vs. Prussia on the continent to get silesia.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Maria Theresa was his mom, made lots of great reforms like ending serfdom, treating all religions equally.


1821 - 1848

Metternich System-censorship, spying, repression of revolutions and nationalism. Carslbad Decrees- banned fraternities, more censorship, removed liberal professors. Concert of Europe-Congress of Vienna, he was the rep. Hates nationalism and liberalism.

1848 Revolts


The people wanted civil liberties and unified Germany. Franz Joseph puts down the revolts and puts the gov back to before the Fr. Revolution.


Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate- Unification with or without Austria.

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

The soldier king because he militarizes all of Prussia

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Vs. Austria for Silesia. Prussia got Silesia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Enlightened reforms like- end of serfdom, general religious equality, education reforms. Fights against the Pragmatic Sanction because he wants Silesia

Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

Gr. Britain vs France, Austria vs. Prussia. Prussia kept Silesia.

Johann Herder

1780 - 1790

Enlightenment writer, Wrote about Shakespeare, the origin of language, and history. Helped create German nationalism and unity.

George Frederick Herder


Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- theory was history follows a path and repeats itself.

Frankfurt Assembly


First freely elected parliament for all of Germany. Offered the monarchy to Friedrich Wilhelm IV who refused because it was from the people and not the princes or a higher authority.


Humanism- emphasis on the idividual, going back to the classics.] Organized in City -States
Risorgimento- the movement for a united Italy. 19th Century. GM's young italy, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence

Prestige of Florence


Cosmo de Medici, banking family, lots of money, The family was linked to the papacy

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

The illigetimate son of the pope, Tried to unite Italy.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Head of the prestigious banking family. Ruler of Florence, patron of the arts.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was the crazy Dominican who burned books, didn't like the worldliness of the Medici's Burning of the Vanities. Killed him because he was to radical.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527




The Prince, Says it's better to be feared then loved. Protect your land at all costs.

End of Italian Renaissance


Ludivico Il Moro let the Holy Roman Empire invade. Charles V



Book of the Courtier, how to be the perfect Renaissance man. Well rounded, does everything.



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems- Proved the world revolved around the Sun. Proved Copernicus right.

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment- He said that torture for prisoners should be outlawed.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Restore Monarch, balance of power, war reparations. Big chunks of Italy went to Austria.

Giuseppe Mazzini


Wanted a united Italy, true Romanticist, (Heart of Italian unification) Young Italy,

1848 Revolutions


The unification movements were unsuccessful because the three groups who were fighting for new governments wanted three different types. Democracy, Constituional Monarchy, and Catholic Theocracy.