Francis the first and Pope Leo X. Kept France Catholic but French kings could appoint bishops while the Pope had authority over the Church Councils.
She ruled for her sons since they were incompetent. She wasn't successful at being a politique because of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Catherine sent soldiers to kill Huguenot guests of the wedding of Henry Bourbon. Pope loved it and gave the messenger a bag of gold.
"Paris is well worth a mass", Edict of Nantes let Huguenots worship in areas of majority. He was a politique because he worried more about running the country than religion. Killed by a religious zealot.
Absolute monarch with Richelieu having a lot of power. He created the French Academy to standardize languages, dictionary. Controled the nobles by getting rid of their castles and their lifestyle. Hated the Hapsburgs and fought with Protestants in 30 years war. Got rid of the Huguenots walls. No more political or military power.
Richelieu sent French troops to help the Protestants in the Netherlands defeat the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, Frances is the strongest county in Europe."
I am the state. Bad at economics because he spent lots of money on Versailles. Revoked the Edict of Nantes. Controlled the nobles by having them live at Versailles. Controlled the Huguenots by making them convert.
Philip of Anjou of France was appointed as heir to the Spanish throne by Charles II. All the other Euro countries were mad because they didn't want Spance. Spance was forever forbidden. Treaty of Utrech
Madame du Pompador ran a salon in Paris. Roccoco art.
Spirit of Laws. 3 branches.
On the continent- Prussia vs. Austria. Off the Continent it was Britain vs. France. Outcome for France- loses Colonial possesions.
Candide, defends free speech. Hated the Catholic Church but liked freedom of worship.
Social Contract, Gov should respect the General Will of the public. Emile- children should discover education by going out into the world. Against Enlightenment because he was about emotion and nature.
Indecisive, Marie Antoinette- French hated her because she didn't understand their lifestyle. He was executed for treason.
France helped to hurt Britain. Killed French economics because they spent so much money.
Abbe Sieyes- wrote What is the Third Estate, Assignats were the money, Civil Const. of the Clergy- took over church lands and stopped the practice of Catholicism. Constriction of 1791 (Constitutional Monarchy) -
National Convention-legislative body, made bad laws, Committee of Public Safety- basically controlled everything, Reign of Terror-thousands died, Thermidorian Reaction- killed Robespierre because he was horrible.
Stable but didn't get much done. Kind of crappy.
Concordat of 1801 let Catholics practice, Napoleonic Code made all men equal and easier to read. Continental System was aimed against Britain to stop trade with the isle. French and Italy, dependent states, and allied states. Peninsular war (1808-1812) Spanish used guerrilla forces. Invasion of Russia failed. Hundred Days-he came back. Waterloo finished him forever.
Brother of Louis XVI, Charter of 1814 was the constitution he brought. Constitutional Monarchy
Balance of Power, restore monarchs, prevent French aggression. Talleyrand represented France. Was treated pretty well overall. Harsher after the 100 days
Conservative, July Ordinances suspended freedom of the press, dissolved the elected chamber, stopped the middle class from voting. The people revolted.
called the Citizen King, ignored workers, and caused rev or 1848
Against Charles X, the barricades were put up by workers and students.
The people wanted more freedom, the gov was taking away rights. The conservative aristocracy put it down.
Louis Blanc was a politician, socialist, wanted gov. workshops. They failed because there wasn't enough work.
4 days in June, rioting against the closing of the workshops, new constitution with a president
against the bourgeoisie by the workers. The second republic started,
Republic, Napoleon III, only men could vote. Socialist.
He invented the printing press
You could have salvation through faith alone, the Priesthood of all believers meant that all were equal in the eyes of God. Gov. should keep peasants in line.
Universal Monarch, he got it from both sides of the Hapsburgs (Spanish and German). Split the lands between his son and Ferdinand I.
Luther should recant his teaches, he said no.
They used the Priesthood of all believers to justify them wanted equal standing in government. He said no you shall be subbordinate.
Council to reform the Catholic Church. Reaffirmed salvation through Faith and Good works. Helped but protestantism was very strong.
Charles V vs the lutherans in the hre. The princes won right to choose religion. Catholic rulers vs. lutheran princes.
Said that the princes (rulers) of an area could choose the religion for the people within the area.
Cuius regio, eius religio
Catholic countries vs. Protestant areas and ends with chaos. Everyone vs. hapsburgs. France stepped it to help the Protestants because they hated the Hapsburgs. Started because of the Defenstration of Prague. Two Catholic guys said don't be lutheran and they were thrown out the window.
Recognized the Dutch Republic, Can be Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist
Balance of power, restore monarchies, prevent future French aggression. Russia got a lot of Poland, They danced and partied- Concert of Europe
Robot- required days of work for peasants.
Vienna as the center of European Music- tons of musicians work in or travel to.
Ottomans tried to take over, they got as far as this and then JanSobeski- polish dude
Pragmatic Sanction so that his daughter could become queen and keep the lands.
She helped the serfs, reduced the robot.
Austria vs. Prussia, Prussia tried to take Silesia and Austria wanted it back.
England vs. France of the Continent and Austria vs. Prussia on the continent to get silesia.
Maria Theresa was his mom, made lots of great reforms like ending serfdom, treating all religions equally.
Metternich System-censorship, spying, repression of revolutions and nationalism. Carslbad Decrees- banned fraternities, more censorship, removed liberal professors. Concert of Europe-Congress of Vienna, he was the rep. Hates nationalism and liberalism.
The people wanted civil liberties and unified Germany. Franz Joseph puts down the revolts and puts the gov back to before the Fr. Revolution.
Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate- Unification with or without Austria.
The soldier king because he militarizes all of Prussia
Enlightened reforms like- end of serfdom, general religious equality, education reforms. Fights against the Pragmatic Sanction because he wants Silesia
Vs. Austria for Silesia. Prussia got Silesia.
Gr. Britain vs France, Austria vs. Prussia. Prussia kept Silesia.
Enlightenment writer, Wrote about Shakespeare, the origin of language, and history. Helped create German nationalism and unity.
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- theory was history follows a path and repeats itself.
First freely elected parliament for all of Germany. Offered the monarchy to Friedrich Wilhelm IV who refused because it was from the people and not the princes or a higher authority.
Humanism- emphasis on the idividual, going back to the classics.] Organized in City -States
Risorgimento- the movement for a united Italy. 19th Century. GM's young italy, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs.
Began in Florence
Cosmo de Medici, banking family, lots of money, The family was linked to the papacy
The illigetimate son of the pope, Tried to unite Italy.
Head of the prestigious banking family. Ruler of Florence, patron of the arts.
He was the crazy Dominican who burned books, didn't like the worldliness of the Medici's Burning of the Vanities. Killed him because he was to radical.
The Prince, Says it's better to be feared then loved. Protect your land at all costs.
Ludivico Il Moro let the Holy Roman Empire invade. Charles V
Book of the Courtier, how to be the perfect Renaissance man. Well rounded, does everything.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems- Proved the world revolved around the Sun. Proved Copernicus right.
On Crime and Punishment- He said that torture for prisoners should be outlawed.
Restore Monarch, balance of power, war reparations. Big chunks of Italy went to Austria.
The unification movements were unsuccessful because the three groups who were fighting for new governments wanted three different types. Democracy, Constituional Monarchy, and Catholic Theocracy.
Wanted a united Italy, true Romanticist, (Heart of Italian unification) Young Italy,