History Midterm

All over Europe

events that involved almost all of Europe

The Reformation

1517 - 1648
  • sparked by Martin Luther posting the 95 Theses on the Roman Catholic Church door
  • led to the creation of Lutherism, Calvanism, and Protestantism

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1700
  • started in France
  • God's universe operates by natural law
  • human minds are capable of uncovering natural law
  • truths are to be discovered, not accepted
  • truths must be experimented and proven true

Enlightenment

1650 - 1700
  • closely related to the Scientific Revolution
  • used ideas of S.R. for inspiration
  • time of political philosophers

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815
  • England, France (eventually), Russia, Austria, and Prussia
  • establish legitimacy of conservative order
  • leads to Quadruple Alliance (hold Concert of Europe meetings)
  • leads to Holy Alliance (pledge to protect each other)

Crimean War

1853 - 1856
  • Russia vs. Ottomans, England, France, P.S.
  • Russian loss

France

Civil Wars in France

1560 - 1589
  • struggle between king and aristocracy
  • also religious war: between Huguenots (French Protestants) and French Catholics

Henry IV

1589 - 1610
  • found Bourbon dynasty
  • issued Edict of Nantes (Huguenot rights)
  • his religious views divided the country
  • hires Duke de Sully (reforms tax system, supports infrastructure, establish government monarchy on coal mining and other industries

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1685
  • religious tolerance for Huguenots
  • issues by Henry IV

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643
  • too young to rule
  • Richelieu ruled for him

Richelieu

1622 - 1642
  • wanted to enhance power of the monarchy
  • ruthless
  • against Edict of Nantes and revoked some of Huguenot rights
  • created new royal court --> new nobles selected from middle class (loyalty)
  • trained army of bureaucrats called intendants (to strip away local power)

Mazarin

1642 - 1661
  • ruled for Louis XIV while he was too young
  • expanded power of the monarch

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715
  • run out France early in life
  • never wanted to come back --> built Versailles
  • known as the Sun King
  • undermined aristocrats, nobles, parlements
  • revoked Edict of Nantes
  • mercantilism
  • major part is War of Spanish Succession

Fronde

1648 - 1649
  • rebellion against royal authority
  • ended in the emergence of an absolute monarchy

Louis XV

1715 - 1774
  • appoint Duc d' Orleans and John law
  • created Mississippi Company
  • "after me is the flood"

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792
  • summons Estates General

Estates General

1789 - 1790
  • called by Louis XVI
  • led to the creation of the National Assembly

First Revolution

1789 - 1792
  • established Constitution of 1791 and Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens
  • created a constitutional monarchy (Locke)
  • powerful bourgeoisie class

Abbes Sieyes

1789 - 1790
  • wrote "What is the Third Estate"

The Great Fear

1789 - 1790
  • peasant revolts against feudalism and the king/ aristocracy
  • causes emigration (émigrés)

First Republic

1792 - 1804
  • established by the National Convention
  • characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the founding of the NC, the Reign of Terror, founding of the Directory, the Thermidorian Reaction, and the establishment of Napoleon 1 as consulate

Second Revolution

1792 - 1795
  • National Convention was in charge
  • representative democracy/ republic
  • Jacobin and Sans Culottes very powerful --> created Law of the Maximum

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794
  • Jacobins / Girondins went around killing everyone who was against the revolution

Robespierre

1793 - 1794
  • head of Committee on Public Safety
  • very radical
  • carried out law 22 Prairial
  • kicked out of power by Thermidorians -> tried to commit suicide -> executed

Thermidorian Reaction

1794 - 1795
  • response to the Reign of Terror/ Robespierre
  • executed allies of Robespierre
  • influence of Sans' culottes undermined
  • return to laissez faire economy (hands off)

Napoleon I

1804 - 1815
  • represented stability
  • represented meritocracy
  • Napoleonic Code
  • ends feudalism

The Russian Campaign

1812 - 1813
  • Napoleon violates treaty of Tilsit
  • Russia uses Scorched Earth tactic
  • waste of French soldiers/ resources/ money

Talleyrand

1814 - 1815
  • French representative for Congress of Vienna

Louis XVIII

1815 - 1824
  • lived in exile during Revolution and Napoleanic Era
  • constitutional monarchy

Charles X

1824 - 1830
  • wanted to restore the Roman Catholic Church/ Ancien Regime
  • dissolved legislative
  • July Revolution --> fled

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848
  • last king to rule France
  • embraced the French Revolution and DOROMAC
  • endorsed by the people
  • said the constitution was a right, not a gift
  • un-instates Roman Catholic Church
  • becomes corrupt
  • thrown out of office 1848

July Revolution

1830 - 1831
  • middle class and working class were power hungry so they banded together and rallied in the streets
  • made Charles X flee --> Louis Felipe came to power
  • successful liberal revolution

Second Republic

1848 - 1852

Second Empire

1852 - 1870
  • declared by Napoleon III

Napoleon III

1852 - 1870
  • becomes king because his name is Napoleon Bonaporte --> means stability
  • called himself emperor because he made the second republic an empire
  • conservative
  • modernized Paris

Franco - Prussian

1870 - 1871
  • Bismarck provokes Napoleon III to initiate war
  • Prussian victory

England

James I

1567 - 1625
  • harsh
  • alienates every religious group
  • didn't respect rights of Parliament
  • "Divine Rights of King"
  • always struggled with money --> created taxes without parliament's permission

Charles I

1625 - 1649
  • devious, weak, not honorable
  • wanted to rule without Parliament
  • taxes (like his father) without consent of Parliament
  • Parliament issues Petition of Rights (list of demands king must meet if he needs money)--> disbands in response
  • wants to expand, but needs money --> Short Parliament --> disbanded --> Long Parliament (house of commons vs. house of lords) created Grand Remonstrance: list of complaint about the king GIVEN TO THE PEOPLE

Long Parliament

1640 - 1648
  • established so Charles I could get money

English Civil War

1642 - 1651
  • Cavaliers (royalist, king's supporters, CONSERVATIVE) vs. Roundheads (3rd estate, nobles of the sword, RADICAL, led by Oliver Cromwell)
  • New Model Army: army built by Oliver Cromwell from scratch
  • Winner: Roundheads (1. have support from Scotland 2. disciplined and loyal army)

Levellers

1648 - 1649
  • movement to abolish class distinctions

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658
  • once he came to power, he killed everyone in support of the king --> "Rump Parliament"
  • started to rule like Charles
  • disbanded Parliament and named himself "Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland"
  • Puritan
  • military dictatorship

Charles II/ Restoration of the English Monarchy

1660 - 1685
  • kills people responsible for father's death (puritans in parliament)
  • has trouble raising money
  • creates secret treaty of Dover: if the crown is threatened, Catholic France will help protect him
  • parliament passes Test Act --> no catholics in army or administration
  • converts to Catholicism on deathbed

James II

1685 - 1688
  • determined to 1. make England an absolute monarchy 2. reimpose the Roman Catholic Church on England (repealed Test Act)
  • fled to France when William of Orange was invited to invade

Glorious (Bloodless Revolution)

1688 - 1689
  • foundation of constitutional monarchy
  • Parliament invited William of Orange to be king
  • prevented alliance with Catholic France
  • cements parliament's control over English monarch

William of Orange

1689 - 1702
  • invited by Parliament to rule England --> foundation for Constitutional Monarchy in England
  • Bill of Rights (relationship between king and parliament) and Act of Settlement (no catholic can rule England)

Castlereagh

1814 - 1815
  • English representative in the Congress of Vienna
  • wants to get out of Holy Alliance

Russia

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725
  • wanted to expand Russia to warm water ports
  • fascinated by the military
  • wanted to open up Russia to new culture (westernize it)
  • 3 year trip to study Western Europe: The Great Embassy
  • created Domestic Policy --> Table of Ranks, eliminates oriental dress, increased military power, and took control of church

The Great Northern War

1709 - 1721
  • fought between Russia (Czar Peter the Great) and Sweden to get Baltic territory (warm water port)
  • before war was over, Peter the Great established St. Petersberg in territory (signifying power)
  • St. Petersberg became the most populous northeastern city in the world
  • victory for Russians

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796
  • "enlightened despot"
  • attempted reform in education, feudal system, and legal system (all pretty much failed)
  • defeated Ottomans on the northshore of the Black Sea --> gains territory
  • gets largest portion of Poland during The Partition of Poland

Alexander I

1801 - 1825
  • ruled during Napoleonic Wars
  • tried to make liberal reforms but failed
  • Peace of Tilsit: peace treaty with France that says France cannot invade Russia
  • rep for Russia during Congress of Vienna

Nicholas I

1825 - 1855
  • Russians saw his reign as a bad omen
  • ruled during Decembrist Revolts

Alexander II

1855 - 1881
  • also known as "Alexander the Liberator"
  • radical reforms(improving communications, government, and education, and most importantly, emancipating the serfs)
  • reduced class privilege

Prussia/ Germany

Frederick William, Great Elector

1640 - 1688
  • Prussian king
  • built strong military
  • able to control estates (politically strong/ stable)
  • promoted trade
  • Calvinist

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786
  • effectively used Prussian military
  • conquered Polish territories in the Partition of Poland
  • enlightened absolutism
  • modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance

Kaiser William I

1861 - 1888
  • wants to modernize Prussia (tries to expand army but council won't give him the money)
  • brings in Bismarck
  • unites Germany thanks to Bismarck in the Austro-Prussian War

Austro- Prussian War

1866 - 1867
  • prussian war against austria
  • win

Franco - Prussian War

1870 - 1871
  • Prussian victory

Otto von Bismarck

1870 - 1890
  • united Germany
  • Chancellor of Prussia
  • deeply conservative
  • believed in Realpolitik (all about pragmatism, realism, do what it takes)
  • broke stagnate between king and council by raising taxes
  • efficient with army (Austro- Prussian War)

Austria

Maria Theresa

1745 - 1765
  • daughter of Charles VI (made her heir)
  • comes to power year Frederick II (Prussia/ Germany) makes big army
  • initiates War of the Austrian Succession
  • Maria did tour of domain to rally support -> commercial war over trade
  • supported by English at beginning of war
  • supported by French at end
  • ends with Marie Antoinette marrying french king

Metternich

1821 - 1848
  • Austrian representative in Quadruple Alliance
  • very conservative, tries to suppress liberalism, nationalism, socialism, democracy
  • Carlsbad Decrees: crack down on student activists; groups were abolished, university discussions censored

Italy

Cavour

1810 - 1861
  • leading figure in Italian Unification
  • Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia
  • founded political newspaper in PS
  • liberation of Lombardy/ Venetia --> nationalist society
  • used diplomacy to get active support (allies with France)
  • mobilization to provoke Austria
  • wins war against Austria

Garibaldi

1848 - 1849
  • leads romantic republicans up to Italian Peninsula
  • intercepts France and gets them to join quest to unify Italy

Mazzini

1849 - 1850
  • wanted Italian states to nationalize all italian states
  • working class withdrew support because they were liberal and power hungry