AP World History

Islam, India, China, Africa, the Middle Ages, etc.

Main

China

Shang Dynasty

1500 bc - 1000 bc
  • Use of pictographs, bronze (copper+tin), cooking ware, and oracle bones
  • Nomadic/Semi-nomadic clans w/ warrior kings

Zhou Dynasty

1045 bc - 221 bc
  • Use of the "Mandate of Heaven" (leadership chosen by the gods) and written tax records
  • 3 main social classes: the Elite (rulers, warriors, priests, etc.), had bronze and jade; the middle class (peasants, artisans, craftsmen), labor-intensive; the lowest class (slaves and unskilled workers), debt and POW
  • Merchants unofficially lowest class; Women lose status (at first, matrilinear) as military dominates

Qin Dynasty

350 bc - 206 bc

Founder: Qin Shi Huangdi
- Unified states under centralized bureaucracy and checks & balances system; Legalism and uniform currency used
- Began construction of Great Wall
- Daoism, Confucianism (the 5 relationships, filiapiety, "The Analects")
- Ended when people grew tired of harsh taxes, forced labor and censorship

Han Dynasty

202 bc - 221

the FIRST GOLDEN AGE of CHINA
Founder: Liu Bang
- Capital established: Chang'an; expansion into Indochina, Korea, and Manchuria, also against Huns
- Bureaucracy of civil servants based upon merit system w/ civil service exams, collected $ and provided defense against enemies
- Wu Di (147-87 BCE) kick started civil service system, colonized Manchuria, and started public schools
- Silk Road opened under , exports include silk, jade, paper (105 BCE) etc., imports include wool, amber, glass, etc.
- Ended through weakened gov., tax increase, invasions by Huns, intro. of Buddhism, and split into 3 kingdoms

Age of 3 Kingdoms

220 - 280

Han's post-demise

Age of Disunity

280 - 589

Internal division in China until Sui

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

Founder: Yuang Jian (Sui Wendi)
- ^ replaced capital at Chang'an, made Daosim/Buddhism official doctrines, established pro army (overworked and overtaxed), "land equalization/distribution" system
- Construction of Grand Canal from Chang'an through the Yellow River to the Yangtze River (1,400 m)

T'ang Dynasty

618 - 907

the SECOND GOLDEN AGE of CHINA
Founder: Li Yuan
- Capital at Chang'an
- Hegemony (control) practiced to gain surrounding areas through political marriages and powerful military (expansion into Tibet and Korea, tribute $ from SE Asia)
- Civil service exams used (only weathly could truly afford the education)
- Gunpowder, steel, and compass invented, "flying money"; leisure activities (only wealthy) included polo, tea brewing, etc., famous authors: Dufu (somber pessimist) and Libo (carefree naturalist)
- Ended through weak emperors and backfiring ally relations

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Founder: Song Taizu
- Failed to reconquer NW China, lost Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet; captial moved to Kaifend (Yellow River crosses Grand Canal), moved again w/ pressure from N to Hangzhou
- Civil service exams still used, better public access with restricitons to noble families and public schools; reduced power of aristocrats for land reform; women lose status (reversed dowry and footbinding)
- Maritime routes surface as Silk Rd declines; shipbuilding improvements and compass, the printing press
- Neo-Confucianism: Confucianism + Daoism
- Ended with the backfiring of a previous Mongol alliance - they conquered

Yuan Dynasty (Khanate of the Great Khan)

1279 - 1368

Mongols united under Genghis Khan before Song China was attacked in 1279 (Karakorum Mongol capital)
Founder: Khubilai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan)
- Spread West to the Middle East, stopped by the Mamluks; in China, captial moved to Khanbaliq (Beijing)
- Silk Rd was revitalized because Mongolian empire covered it all, brought along the Black Death
- Ended due to culltural diffusion, great size, and the BD

Ming Dynasty

1369 - 1644

Founder: Hongwu (Emperor Zhuyuanzhang)
- United China under centralized bureaucracy, expanded into Mongolia, had 50+ tribute states
- Lowered taxes and had 'Mandarins' (messengers of sorts to give reports throughout the country); used civil service exams and established a Confucian school system
- Finished Grand Canal and fortified Great Wall
- Emperor Yong Le: Begins construction of the Imperial City (1406), strengthens navy, Encycopedia of Knowledge written
- Zheng He = Chinese sea admiral that made 7 explorations West (1405 to 1433), created great profit and relations
- Involved in the Columbian Exchange
- Art: scroll paintings, porcelain, "The Golden Lotus"
- 1514 = First arrival of Portugese, although China is uninterested in their trade; Jesuit missionaries are fascinated with the culture, Chinese fascinated likewise (in some areas)
- Ended due to rising taxes, weak rulers, peasant unrest, 1630s epidemic, and invading Manchurians (China overall is vulnerable)

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

2nd Foreign Dynasty - the Manchurians - "Pure"
- Ming dynasty is weak and vulnerable, the Manchus invade from the North and take Beijing
- "Purification" of population: NO intermarriage (Chinese/Manchu), "que" must be worn as hairstyle, patriarchal society; scholar-gentry class is superior, the "mean people" (slaves, etc.) lowest
- Confucianism widely used (schools, gov., civil service exam)
- Western relations: Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits prominent, Catholics and Protestants bring Western ideas, BOP issue w/ trade in British East India Company (causes White Lotus Rebellion), tea import to England balanced w/ opium export - causes Opium War
- Opium War: (see separate event)
- Taiping Rebellion: Anti-foreign idea brought forth w/ the Manchurians and the British, British assist in pushing down rebellion
- Empress Cixi (1861-1905): Conservative regent, loathes modernization/industrialization of China, in 1898 hides 8.5 million lbs of silver, drains navy $ w/ construction of summer home
- Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
- 1900 = Boxer Rebellion, another rise for anti-foreign rule, British again help and receive Hong Kong as payment
- Sun Yat-sen wants revival of China w/ democracy
- Ends due to tensions between Goumondang (nationalists) and Communists

Islam

Life of Muhammad

570 - 632

the Hegira (Hijrah)

622

Muhammad and his followers make journey from Mecca to Medina

Umayyad Caliphate

650 - 1031

Capital: Damascus
- The first caliphate
- Well-know city of Cordoba in Southern Spain; farthest expansion into Iberian Peninsula stopped at the Battle of Tours

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Captital: Baghdad
- Located Eastern Mediterranean coast, heavy influence from the Seljuk Turks
- the Turks capture Baghdad in 1055 and Anatolia in 1071
- Mongols take Baghdad from Turks and end caliphate

Fatimid Caliphate

973 - 1169
  • Shi'ite caliphate located in Northern Egypt, created after they were 'betrayed' by Abbasids in their war with Umayyads

Africa

Societies, Kingdoms, and the Sudanic States

Mali

1240 - 1380

Songhay

1400 - 1550

Founder: Sunni Ali (Muslim)
- Capital at Gao, dominated Niger valley and took over Mali

India

The Aryans, the Maurya and Gupta Empires

Gupta Empire

320 - 647

the GOLDEN AGE of INDIA
Founder: Chandra Gupta I
- He and Chandra Gupta II reunited India 320-415
- Hinduism revived for the caste system
- Trade included involvemnt in the Mediterranean, Silk Rd and Indian Ocean sea routes
- Fa-hsien (a Chinese Buddhist monk) traveled on Silk Rd and visited India, told of a prosperous empire; Kalidasa (greatest Indian poet) wrote "Shakuntala"
- Ended with invasions by Huns and fragmentation, Muslims enter in 7th century = Deli Sultanate

Japan

The Shogunates, Unifiers, and Meigi Restoration

Kamakura Shogunate

1185 - 1337

Daiymo have the power and control the samurai; decentralized

Ashikaga Shogunate

1337 - 1580

Samurai become 'ronin' ("jobless" samurai, mercenaries), decentralized w/ civil war, European influences

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1854

Founder: Tokugawa Ieyasu
- Comes to power by forcing daiymo to reside in Edo every other year, families had to stay; Hideyori commits sepuku (ritual suicide)
- Wanted Europeans out of Japan, which brings about National Seclusion Policy (1635) - Japanese can only trade with the Dutch (who want strictly commerce), and they can only come on Christmas Day