Antibiotics

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First Effective Antibiotic

1890

Rudolf Emmerich and Oscar Low are the first doctors to make an effective medication that they called pyocyanese. It was the first antibiotic to be used in hospitals. However, the medication often did not work.

Discovery of Penicillin

1928

Sir Alexander Fleming observed that the bacterium Staphylococcus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillin.

The First Sulfa Drug

1935

Protonsil was discovered by German chemist Gerhard Domagk.

Penicillin Sold

1942

The manufacturing process for Penicillin was invented by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. Penicillin could now be sold as a drug.

New Class of Antibiotics

1943

American microbiologist Selman Waksman made the drug streptomycin from soil bacteria, the first of a new class of drugs called aminoglycosides. Streptomycin could treat diseases like tuberculosis, however, the side effects were often too severe.

Nobel Prize For Penicillin

1945

Fleming, Florey, and Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for medicine for their work on penicillin.

Aminoglycosides

1946

Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections. This group of antibiotics includes at least eight drugs: amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, paromomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin.

Teytracycline

1949

Tetracycline is used to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections.

Antibiotics in Agriculture

1950

Farmers start to add low levels of antibiotics to the feed or water of healthy poultry, cattle, and swine to promote faster growth and prevent infections.

Most Prescribed Antibiotic

1955

Tetracycline was patented by Lloyd Conover, which became the most prescribed broad spectrum antibiotic in the United States.

Nystatin

1957

Nystatin was patented and used to cure many disfiguring and disabling fungal infections.

Penicillin Resistant Diseases

1970

Penicillin resistant strains are one of the most common causes of pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as many venereal diseases, spread around the world.

Amoxicillin

1981

SmithKline Beecham patented Amoxicillin or potassium tablets.

Carbapenems

1985

Carbapenem antibiotics were originally developed from thienamycin, a naturally derived product of Streptomyces cattleya.

Not as Useful

1990

It became difficult to detect new and potentially useful antibiotic classes against the background of known but not useful antibiotics.

Amoxicillin Sold

1998

SmithKline Beecham first sold the antibiotic in under the tradenames of Amoxicillin, Amoxil, and Trimox.

Streptogramin

1999

Streptogramins are effective in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus.

Oxazolidinones

2001

Oxazolidinones are mainly used as antimicrobials. These antibiotics are considered as a choice of last resort where every other antibiotic therapy has failed.

Dissaproved Antibiotics

2002

Out of 89 new medicines emerging on the market, no new antibacterial drugs were approved. Since 1998, only seven new antibacterials have been approved.

Daptomycin

2004

Treats or prevents skin infection caused by certain bacteria. This medicine also treats blood infections and certain heart diseases caused by Staphylococcus bacteria.

Antibiotics Today

2012

As bacteria evolve to evade antibiotics, common infections could become deadly. Diseases that were once curable, such as tuberculosis, are becoming harder and more expensive to treat.