AP Euro Timeline

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Black Plague

1348 - 1350

Pandemic that ripped through Europe. Was Three plagues, Boubonic, Pneumonic, and Septicemic. Killed and Estimated 75- 200 Million people.

Renaissance Age Begins

1400

"Rebirth". A love for Art, Architecture and science. Began in Italy and spread through the rest of Europe. da Vinci, Michelangelo were notable names of the Renaissance.

Age of Enlightenment Begins

1650

A movement supporting Reason over superstition. The Scientific Method was the basis for gaining information and learning. The Age of Enlightenment ended when the Romantic Age began.

Congress of Vienna

Sept 1814 - June 1815

The gathering of European Leaders for solving the issues after Napoleon and the ending of the HRE. It ended with Russia bitter for not gaining anything.

Crimean War 1853-1856

1853 - 1856

War Between Russia, and an alliance between France, England, and the Ottoman Empire. This war had many tactical blunders

Scramble for Africa

1881 - 1914

European Colonization of Africa. Caused tension between the Nations of Europe over who gets what in Africa.

Berlin Conference. European powers carve up Africa.

1884 - 1885

Formalized African claims between the Nations of Europe. This set up permanent borders in Africa to reduce conflict.

World War One

1914 - 1918

War Between the Allies (France, England, U.S., Italy) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire) in Europe. Causes of the war were from the imperialistic ideals of Germany and began when Archduke Ferdinand was killed in Austria

Versailles Conference

1919

Conference to determine how to deal with the aftermath of WWI. Ended in the Treaty of Versailles, which ended with demilitarization of the Rhineland, Germany paying a lot of money to the Allies, and the call for the end to secret treaties.

World War Two

1939 - 1945

War between the Axis and Allies. The war began because Britain and France would not enforce the Treaty of Versailles, which allowed for Germany to build up troops. The war also saw the Holocaust, which killed 6 million Jews.

Formation of the European Union

1952

A coalition of the majority of the Nations of Europe for Economic and Political unity. Formed by the Treaty of Paris.

England

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

War between the House of York (White Rose) and House of Lancaster (Red Rose) over the British throne. Lasted for 30 Years and ended in the Lancasters being the victors and the beginning of the Tudor Dynasty

Henry VIII Breaks from the Church

1534

Henry VII Broke from the Church because he wanted a divorce from his first (of 6) wives, Catherine of Argon, who failed to produce a son. Henry VIII then formed the Church of England.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

11 year war between the Roundheads, who supported full parliament takeover, and the Cavaliers who supported the King. The war ended in the execution of Charles I and II, and lead to the Puritan Extremest Oliver Cromwell to become the leader of Britain.

Newton's Principa

1687

Published by Isaac Newton. This book contains his 3 laws of motion among other mathematical achievements, including gravity.

Glorious Revolution and English Bill of Rights

1688 - 1689

Overthrew King James II, and lead to the English Bill of Rights. Lead to the ascension of Will and Mary to the throne. The Bill of Rights has many of the same rights the U.S. Bill of rights has.

Locke’s Treatise on Government

1689

Book by John Locke. Discusses the two forms of government, Kings and Democracy.

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

War between France and England over Colonial Conquest. Britain won, gaining Canada.

Smith's Wealth of Nations

1776

The great book of Capitalism and Free markets. One of the best Economic works in history.

Germany

Gutenberg Bible Printed

1456

First Printing of the bible. Started the Gutenberg Revolution.

95 Thesis

Oct. 31, 1517

Luther Posted his 95 Thesis on Halloween in 1517. This lead to the beginning of the Reformation and the beginning of Lutheranism. The 95 Thesis were a list of grievances that Martin Luther had with the Catholic Church.

Diet of Worms

1521

Declared Martin Luther as a Heretic, and put a bounty on him. Given by the HRE Charles V.

Peasant Rebellion

1524 - 1527

Rebellion in Germany sparked by the teachings of Martin Luther, although he did not support it. It was very violent, and the Peasants lost and many were killed.

Siege of Vienna

1529

Ottoman Empire's attempt to capture Vienna. Ended in the retreat of the Ottomans

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Peace Treaty that allowed for German princes to choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism. Officially established Lutheranism as a branch of Christianity.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

War between the HRE against Denmark, Germany, France, Sweden, and Bohemia. Ended in a weakened Germany and the decline of the HRE

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Peace Treaty after the Thirty Years' War. Stated that all the nations would observe the peace of Augsburg.

HRE Ends

1806

HRE Ends after the defeat at the hands of Napoleon

Unification of Italy and Germany

1848

German Unification

1871

Germany Unifies as one nation

Hitler takes power

1934

Adolf Hitler takes control of Germany which eventually leads to WWII

Invasion of Poland 1939

1939

Germany Invades Poland. This marks the beginning of WWII

Berlin Wall Falls

November 1989

The Fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the separation of the city. Began the reunification of Germany. Begins the fall of the Soviet Union.

Spain

Ferdinand and Isabella Marry

Oct. 18, 1469

Marriage of the King and Queen of Spain. These monarchs started the Spanish Inquisition

Columbus Sails Ocean Blue

August 1492

Christopher Columbus sails from Portugal in search for a water route to India. He ran into the Americas instead, which brought forth colonization and conquest.

Spanish Armada

1529

Strongest Navy in Europe. Was entirely destroyed in the English Channel at the hands of weather and the Brits.

Italy

Rome Sacked, Machiavelli Dead

1527

Marked the end of the Renaissance and the takeover of Rome by Charles V.

The Prince is Published

1532

Machiavelli's work on the theories of Monarchies and how they should be run. Some saw this book as satire.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A meeting between church officials over the heretics of the reformation and defining the Catholic Sacraments. Embodied the Counter Reformation. Was multiple meetings over 18 years.

Russia

Turks Take Constantinople

April 1453 - May 1453

Capturing of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Was the end of the Byzantines. The price of trading through here lead to the discovery of new routes to Asia. One of such route attempts was by Columbus.

Communist Manifesto 1848

1848

Written by Karl Marx, this book pointed out the problems with capitalism, which eventually lead to the formation of the Soviet Union.

Emancipation of Russian Serfs

1861

Russian Serfs were let free. This allowed for them to participate in society.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

War between Russia and Japan. The two nations were fighting over their Imperial goals. Resulted in a Japanese victory and established the nation as a power in the 20th century.

Russian Revolution

1917

Russian Revolution to overthrow the tsar. Established the USSR as a communist nation.

Soviet Invasion of Hungary

1956 - 1991

The USSR was controlling the Hungarian Government, and this lead to revolts. Even though the revolts were crushed, this lead to the decline of the USSR

Khrushchev’s Secret Speech

1956

Speech that criticized Stalin for only benefiting himself. The speech lead to problems with trust for the government.

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

Speech that stated that if one socialist nation saw an attempt at changing to capitalism, that the other socialist nations should band together and stop them. Was in effect till Gorbachev refused to invade Poland.

Soviet Union Falls

1991

Fall of the USSR and establishment of the Russian Federation and the fall of communism

France

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

King Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. This revoked the rights of the Huguenots to practice their religion. Louis XIV wanted an Absolute France where he was the Leader

Rousseau’s Social Contract

1762

This social Contract stated that People were the lawmakers, not the King. This helped to spark the beginning thoughts of French Revolution

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Revolution in France caused by economic crisis and general dislike for the monarchy. It lead to the overthrowing of the Monarchy, and the rise of Napoleon.

The French Revolutionary Terror Sept, 1793 – July, 1794

Sept 1793 - July 1794

The Guillotine was the symbol of the mass execution of anyone who opposed the Revolution, The Terror.

Franco-Prussian War. Start of the French Third Republic

1870 - 1871

French forces were at war with Prussian forces. Ended in the French 3rd Republic, and the unification of Germany