Pandemic that ripped through Europe. Was Three plagues, Boubonic, Pneumonic, and Septicemic. Killed and Estimated 75- 200 Million people.
Renaissance Age Begins
"Rebirth". A love for Art, Architecture and science. Began in Italy and spread through the rest of Europe. da Vinci, Michelangelo were notable names of the Renaissance.
Age of Enlightenment Begins
A movement supporting Reason over superstition. The Scientific Method was the basis for gaining information and learning. The Age of Enlightenment ended when the Romantic Age began.
Congress of Vienna
Sept 1814 - June 1815
The gathering of European Leaders for solving the issues after Napoleon and the ending of the HRE. It ended with Russia bitter for not gaining anything.
Crimean War 1853-1856
1853 - 1856
War Between Russia, and an alliance between France, England, and the Ottoman Empire. This war had many tactical blunders
Scramble for Africa
1881 - 1914
European Colonization of Africa. Caused tension between the Nations of Europe over who gets what in Africa.
Berlin Conference. European powers carve up Africa.
1884 - 1885
Formalized African claims between the Nations of Europe. This set up permanent borders in Africa to reduce conflict.
World War One
1914 - 1918
War Between the Allies (France, England, U.S., Italy) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire) in Europe. Causes of the war were from the imperialistic ideals of Germany and began when Archduke Ferdinand was killed in Austria
Conference to determine how to deal with the aftermath of WWI. Ended in the Treaty of Versailles, which ended with demilitarization of the Rhineland, Germany paying a lot of money to the Allies, and the call for the end to secret treaties.
World War Two
1939 - 1945
War between the Axis and Allies. The war began because Britain and France would not enforce the Treaty of Versailles, which allowed for Germany to build up troops. The war also saw the Holocaust, which killed 6 million Jews.
Formation of the European Union
A coalition of the majority of the Nations of Europe for Economic and Political unity. Formed by the Treaty of Paris.
War of the Roses
1455 - 1485
War between the House of York (White Rose) and House of Lancaster (Red Rose) over the British throne. Lasted for 30 Years and ended in the Lancasters being the victors and the beginning of the Tudor Dynasty
Henry VIII Breaks from the Church
Henry VII Broke from the Church because he wanted a divorce from his first (of 6) wives, Catherine of Argon, who failed to produce a son. Henry VIII then formed the Church of England.
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
11 year war between the Roundheads, who supported full parliament takeover, and the Cavaliers who supported the King. The war ended in the execution of Charles I and II, and lead to the Puritan Extremest Oliver Cromwell to become the leader of Britain.
Published by Isaac Newton. This book contains his 3 laws of motion among other mathematical achievements, including gravity.
Glorious Revolution and English Bill of Rights
1688 - 1689
Overthrew King James II, and lead to the English Bill of Rights. Lead to the ascension of Will and Mary to the throne. The Bill of Rights has many of the same rights the U.S. Bill of rights has.
Locke’s Treatise on Government
Book by John Locke. Discusses the two forms of government, Kings and Democracy.
Seven Years War
1754 - 1763
War between France and England over Colonial Conquest. Britain won, gaining Canada.
Smith's Wealth of Nations
The great book of Capitalism and Free markets. One of the best Economic works in history.
Gutenberg Bible Printed
First Printing of the bible. Started the Gutenberg Revolution.
Oct. 31, 1517
Luther Posted his 95 Thesis on Halloween in 1517. This lead to the beginning of the Reformation and the beginning of Lutheranism. The 95 Thesis were a list of grievances that Martin Luther had with the Catholic Church.
Diet of Worms
Declared Martin Luther as a Heretic, and put a bounty on him. Given by the HRE Charles V.
1524 - 1527
Rebellion in Germany sparked by the teachings of Martin Luther, although he did not support it. It was very violent, and the Peasants lost and many were killed.
Siege of Vienna
Ottoman Empire's attempt to capture Vienna. Ended in the retreat of the Ottomans
Peace of Augsburg
Peace Treaty that allowed for German princes to choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism. Officially established Lutheranism as a branch of Christianity.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
War between the HRE against Denmark, Germany, France, Sweden, and Bohemia. Ended in a weakened Germany and the decline of the HRE
Peace of Westphalia
Peace Treaty after the Thirty Years' War. Stated that all the nations would observe the peace of Augsburg.
HRE Ends after the defeat at the hands of Napoleon
Unification of Italy and Germany
Germany Unifies as one nation
Hitler takes power
Adolf Hitler takes control of Germany which eventually leads to WWII
Invasion of Poland 1939
Germany Invades Poland. This marks the beginning of WWII
Berlin Wall Falls
The Fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the separation of the city. Began the reunification of Germany. Begins the fall of the Soviet Union.
Ferdinand and Isabella Marry
Oct. 18, 1469
Marriage of the King and Queen of Spain. These monarchs started the Spanish Inquisition
Columbus Sails Ocean Blue
Christopher Columbus sails from Portugal in search for a water route to India. He ran into the Americas instead, which brought forth colonization and conquest.
Strongest Navy in Europe. Was entirely destroyed in the English Channel at the hands of weather and the Brits.
Rome Sacked, Machiavelli Dead
Marked the end of the Renaissance and the takeover of Rome by Charles V.
The Prince is Published
Machiavelli's work on the theories of Monarchies and how they should be run. Some saw this book as satire.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
A meeting between church officials over the heretics of the reformation and defining the Catholic Sacraments. Embodied the Counter Reformation. Was multiple meetings over 18 years.
Turks Take Constantinople
April 1453 - May 1453
Capturing of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Was the end of the Byzantines. The price of trading through here lead to the discovery of new routes to Asia. One of such route attempts was by Columbus.
Communist Manifesto 1848
Written by Karl Marx, this book pointed out the problems with capitalism, which eventually lead to the formation of the Soviet Union.
Emancipation of Russian Serfs
Russian Serfs were let free. This allowed for them to participate in society.
1904 - 1905
War between Russia and Japan. The two nations were fighting over their Imperial goals. Resulted in a Japanese victory and established the nation as a power in the 20th century.
Russian Revolution to overthrow the tsar. Established the USSR as a communist nation.
Khrushchev’s Secret Speech
Speech that criticized Stalin for only benefiting himself. The speech lead to problems with trust for the government.
Soviet Invasion of Hungary
1956 - 1991
The USSR was controlling the Hungarian Government, and this lead to revolts. Even though the revolts were crushed, this lead to the decline of the USSR
Speech that stated that if one socialist nation saw an attempt at changing to capitalism, that the other socialist nations should band together and stop them. Was in effect till Gorbachev refused to invade Poland.
Soviet Union Falls
Fall of the USSR and establishment of the Russian Federation and the fall of communism
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
King Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. This revoked the rights of the Huguenots to practice their religion. Louis XIV wanted an Absolute France where he was the Leader
Rousseau’s Social Contract
This social Contract stated that People were the lawmakers, not the King. This helped to spark the beginning thoughts of French Revolution
1789 - 1799
Revolution in France caused by economic crisis and general dislike for the monarchy. It lead to the overthrowing of the Monarchy, and the rise of Napoleon.
The French Revolutionary Terror Sept, 1793 – July, 1794
Sept 1793 - July 1794
The Guillotine was the symbol of the mass execution of anyone who opposed the Revolution, The Terror.
Franco-Prussian War. Start of the French Third Republic
1870 - 1871
French forces were at war with Prussian forces. Ended in the French 3rd Republic, and the unification of Germany