Mohammed Daud seizes power in a coup and declares a republic.
Conservative leaders objecting to social changes by Khan begin an armed revolt
General Daud is overthrown and killed in a coup. Soviet intervention.
Nur Mohammad Taraki signs a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union.
Mujahadeen is created to battle the Soviet-backed government.
Soviet Red Army invades and props up communist government.
Babrak Karmal installed as ruler, backed by Soviet troops.
Afghan guerrillas control rural areas; Soviets hold urban areas.
Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces.
Najibullah elected president of the puppet Soviet state
Osama bin Laden and 15 other Islamists form the group al-Qaida to fight Soviets.
The Mujahadeen recieve arms from the United States.
US supplies mujahideen with missiles, so they can shoot down Soviets.
Afghanistan, USSR, sign peace accords. Soviet Union begins pulling out troops.
Afghan guerrillas name Sibhatullah Mojadidi head of their exiled government
Civil war continues as mujahideen push to overthrow Najibullah.
Soviet Union promises Afghan independence and the withdrawal of 100,000 troops
The Mujahadeen resist the Soviet-backed regime of president Najibullah
Islamic militia, the Taliban, rise to power: promise peace
The Mujahadeen remove Najibullah from power.
Taliban seize control of Kabul and introduce hard-line version of Islam
Taliban now control two-thirds of Afghanistan
The Taliban publicly executes Najibullah.
Bin Laden accused of bombing US embassies in Africa
US launches missile strikes at suspected bases of bin Laden.
Afghanistan won’t hand over Osama bin Laden for trial.
So UN imposes an air embargo and financial sanctions.
bin Laden is thought to be hiding in Afghanistan
Taliban destroy Buddhist statues saying they are an affront to Islam.
The Taliban decline to put bin Laden on trial for embassy bombings.
The United Nations punishes Afghanistan with sanctions restricting trade.
Ahmad Shah Masood is assassinated.
Hijacked planes crash into twin towers, pentagon, and pennsylvania field
September 11 2001
U.S. officials say bin Laden is the prime suspect in the terrorist attacks.
September 11 2001
After Taliban refuse to turn over bin Laden, U.S launch airstrikes.
US-led bombing of Afghanistan begins after September 11 attacks.
The Taliban proclaim they are ready for jihad.
October 7, 2001
Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance forces enter Kabul after US bombing.
Hamid Karzai named head of an interim government.
Osama bin Laden escapes during The Battle of Tora Bora.
Taliban surrender the group's final Afghan territory, the province of Zabul.
December 7, 2001
Afghan Islamic Press declare "the rule of the Taliban has totally ended."
December 9 2001
Hamid Karzai is sworn in as the leader of the interim government
December 20 2001
First US soldier dies due to hostile fire.
Loya Jirga elects Hamid Karzai as interim head of state.
Vice President Abdul Qadir assassinated in Kabul.
July 6 2002
loya jirga considers the proposed Afghan Constitution.
Nato takes control of security in Kabul.
Constitution approved by loya jirga.
country’s first direct election, Hamid Karzai wins
Afghans vote in first parliamentary elections in 30 years.
The Afghanistan Compact is developed
Operation Mountain Thrust launched
Nato assumes responsibility for security across the whole of Afghanistan
2008 Kandahar bombing is deadliest suicide bombing of the war.
Opium production has soared to record high
Suicide bomb attack on Indian embassy in Kabul kills 50.
US President George Bush sends an extra 4,500 US troops to Afghanistan.
US President Barack Obama unveils new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan.
US President Obama boosts US troop numbers by 30,000-total to 100,000.
Wikileaks publishes classified US military documents on Afghanistan.
Nato agrees to hand control of security to Afghan forces by end of 2014.
Parliamentary polls marred by Taliban violence and fraud.
Osama bin Laden killed by Navy SEALs in Abbottabad
May 1 2011
US troops pledge to stay after 2014, when foreign troops leave the country.
US Army Sgt Robert Bales is accused of killing 16 civilians in an armed rampage.
Nato summit endorses the plan to withdraw foreign combat troops by 2014.