History Timeline


Middle Ages

Crusades, 1095-1291, Jerusalem

1095 - 1291

-A series of wars between the Christians and Muslims to reclaim lost land
-Fighting for the “Holy Land”

Magna Carta, 1215, England


-A document that limits the Monarch’s Power

The Hundred Years’ War, 1337-1453, France

1337 - 1453

-A war between England and France
-Fighting over land located in France

The Battle of Rio Salado, 1340-1350, Rio Salado

1340 - 1350

-A battle between Christians and Muslims
-Muslims faced a brutal defeat after much bloodshed
-United Christians to fight a common enemy

The Black Plague, 1347-1351

1347 - 1351

-A disease that killed a large population of Europe
-Slowed the intellectual growth of Europe

The Great Schism, 1378-1417

1378 - 1417

The Great Schism was a split in the Church which led to two popes, which hurt the Church's power.

Portuguese Exploration of West Africa, 1430-1445

1430 - 1445

-Started the slave trade in Europe
-Portuguese traded gold with the natives


Petrarch, The Father of Humanism, 1304-1374

1304 - 1374

-Petrarch , also know as the Father of Humanism, shows his commitment to classic Greek and Roman works and learning, and inspires others to do the same.

Start of Renaissance in Italy, around 1350


-The cultural movement of new ideas and classical learning started In Italy
-The Medici were major patrons and contributed to the renaissance starting in Italy.

Brunelleschi creates dome for Florence Cathedral, 1439-1461

1439 - 1461

-Brunelleschi was commissioned to build the dome for the Florence Cathedral, which was a major achievement in architecture that occurred during the renaissance

The Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550

1450 - 1550

-The rebirth of learning spread across the Alps,and started the Northern Renaissance.
- It was more closely tied to religion , and important people such as Erasmus and More arose from the Northern Renaissance.

Machiavelli writes “The Prince” 1513

  • Machiavelli was another great humanist of the time, and wrote The Prince in which he introduced many different political views.

The Book of the Courtier, is published by Castiglione, 1528


-In this writing , Castiglione writes about what it takes to be a courtier, and shows individualism through his writing.

Protestant Reformation

95 Theses Is Enacted 1517


Tetzel selling indulgences in Wittenburg, Germany. 95 Theses created to present Luther’s oppositions to the corruptions and indulgences that are taking place in the church

Reformation Develops in Germany 1525


Million pamphlets circulating in Germany. He had the support of Fredrick of Saxony, influential German Prince.

Henry VIII Changes England's Church to Protestantism 1529


Henry VIII got Parliament to accept the the reformation in England. He became the Head of his own Church that became the Anglican Church. This was all so he could terminate his marriage to the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon.

Circulating through Paris 1530


The Protestant Reformation began to spread through Paris. It gained a good amount of influence there

Calvinism 1533


Calvin met French followers called Huguenots. He then began to spread the ideas of Calvinism

Scientific Revolution

Christopher Columbus discovers the New World, 1492

  • This sends everybody into a frenzy about whether or not the world is flat.

Nicholas Copernicus Publishes his Heliocentric Theory, 1513

  • Copernicus says that the the Earth and the rest of the planets are in constant rotation around the Sun.

Invention of the Telescope by Galileo, 1609

  • Galileo made improvements to the telescopes being toyed with by the Dutch. He made the first telescope with enough magnification to see outer space and the moon and other planets

Galileo Publishes Letters on Sunspots, 1613

  • This shows that the heavenly bodies aren’t pristine after all, and shows some flaw in the astronomy of the Bible

Galileo Publishes Two New Sciences, 1638

  • This is a book of Galileo’s Laws of motion that played a huge role in shaping modern Physics.