The Chinese Dynasties

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The Shang Dynasty

1766 B.C. - 1046 B.C.


-Known as the Yellow River civilization (Hooker)
-They introduced bronze which actually entered china around 2000 B.C.
-Used “Oracle Bones” which contain written records (Dharmananda).
-Showed names of kings and also proved also their existence (Dharmananda).
-Worshipped figure known as, “Shang Ti” or “Lord on High”. This god ruled over the other gods of nature. The people made human sacrifices as well (Dharmananda).

The Zhou Dynasty

1046 B.C. - 221 B.C.


-Are credited with the idea of the Mandate of Heaven ("Zhou Dynasty").
-Descent to become king was now from father to son, rather than from eldest brother to youngest brother, which was what the Shang did ("Zhou Dynasty").
-They banned human sacrifice; instead practiced the cult of Heaven. Worshipped the sun and stars. Some of Shang's gods were included in the religion ("Zhou Dynasty")
-The Dynasty was divided into 2 sub-timeperiods, Western and Eastern Zhou. Western Zhou was when they were victorious over the Shang. But then they were pushed east by barbarians. Then in Eastern Zhou consisted of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period ("Zhou Dynasty").

The Qin Dynasty

221 B.C. - 206 B.C.


- So...they conquered the other Warring States which ended up unifying China for the first time("Qin Dynasty").
- From conquering all the warring states, the leader, Shih Huang Ti, pronounced himself as the first emperor of China, thus making emperors as the rulers from now on ("Qin Dynasty")
-They used many new technologies in warfare, especially cavalry, which gave them the strongest military of the warring states("Qin Dynasty").
- The Qin were sometimes called "Ch'in", which was where the name China originated ("Qin Dynasty").

The Han Dynasty

206 B.C. - 220 A.D.


-The Han continued to rule in the tradition of the Qin, and incorporated Confucian ideas into their Legalist government ("Han Dynasty").
-Under this new form of government, rewards and punishments were used for the people ("The Han Dynasty").
-During the reign of Wu Ti, he focused on military expansion which expanded the borders into Vietnam and Korea ("The Han Dynasty").
- Expansion led to the development of the Silk Road ("Han Dynasty").
-Agriculture grew with the development of better tools. Irrigation systems were increased to develop the areas of North China ("Han Dynasty").

The Sui Dynasty

580 - 618


-The Sui dynasty reunited China in AD 589 ("Sui Dynasty").
-The Grand Canal was extended north from Hangzhou across the Yangzi to northwest to the region of Louyang ("Sui Dynasty")
-Began to build and fortify the great wall ("Dynasties of Classical").
- They established the "Keju System" which was an imperial examination for the selection of officials, which lasted for almost 1000 years until the end of the Qing Dynasty (Google).
-They were very successful with territorial expansion into the south ("Sui Dynasty")

The Tang Dynasty

618 - 907


-The T’ang expanded on their administrative system. Had four main departments: Department of State Affairs, Imperial Chancellory, Imperial Grand Secretariat, and Council of State ("T'ang Dynasty").
-They were first to make the T’ang Code in 624 A.D which consisted of penalties that were applied to criminals ("T'ang Dynasty")
-Began a system of taxes which was based on taxing per person instead of how much land they had ("T'ang Dynasty")
-The T’ang dynasty had the only female empress. A woman named Wu Chao reigned as emperor; took the throne under the name Emperor Tse-t’ien. Her reign is actually a disruption of the T’ang dynasty because she called her dynasty the Chou which lasted for 15 years. ("T'ang Dynasty")

The Sung Dynasty

960 - 1279


- Literature and knowledge was spread even better now by the earlier invention of woodblock printing and afterwords the invention of the movable type (HighBeam Research).
- Local and overseas trading expanded as advances in ship-manufacturing and using magnetic compass made voyages safer (HighBeam Research). YAY!
- 3 out of the 4 great inventions for ancient China were made in the Sung Dynasty. Compasses, gunpowder, and typography was born (HighBeam Research).

The Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368


-The Mongolians made policies that discriminated against Chinese people, and to prevent rebellion, the government sent Mongol troop all over the country. This contributes to China's hate for Mongolians till this day (Colombia University Press).
-In the early years of the Yuan dynasty, it developed a pretty good postal system and a huge network of roads and canals reaching to Turkistan, Persia, and Southern Russia. Because of this, they kept continuous contact with the West and exchanged products ("Yuan")
-Many talented Chinese people left their political life and turned to theater and other forms of art. As a result, the Yuan dynasty had many great accomplishments in the theater, arts, and painting ("Yuan")

The Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644


-The emperor Yung Lo made the capital from Nanjing to Beijing (Josephine).
- The delicate porcelain made in the Ming period is often known as the finest achievement of Chinese ceramics (Josephine).
- Even though the Great Wall had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming dynasty (Josephine).
-This stable period led to a rapidly expanding population that numbered about 100 million (Josephine).

The Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911


-European missionaries were allowed into China and influenced Chinese ideas about science. Chinese now see European ideas in their art ("The Qing Dyansty"). uh oh..
-During the reign of the GREAT Qianglong, the borders of China were expanded to their farthest extent ("The Qing Dynasty").
-China trades with Great Britain, giving silk and tea while Great Britain gives them opium, which leads to the opium wars but then in 1842, china was forced to sign a treaty, granting their ports to be open to Europeans ("The Qing Dynasty").

The Republic of China

1911 - 1949


-The Revolutionary League declared the establishment of the Republic of China, with Sun Yat Sen as its provisional president (History: the first).
- though the local population and army units put up a strong resistance, Chiang Kai Shek signed an agreement permitting the Japanese to remain in the area and took out the Chinese troops when Japan attacks them in 1932 (History: the first).
-After the Shanghai massacre, there had been many revolts from a section in the army, followed by a series of peasant uprisings led by the communists, and a revolutionary base was set up in the mountains between Jiangsi and Hunan (History: the first).
-Here the first of the ‘Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army’ were formed. Chiang determined on a policy of annihilation of the communists before dealing with the Japanese.

Mao Zedong

1940 - 1976


- Authorized massive support in weapons & troops for North Korea in the early 1950's ("Seize the night").
- Because China was mostly agricultural, and the cities were mostly controlled by Triads that worked with the government, Mao Zedong went into the countryside and organized the peasants there (W).
- Through communism, government policy made a country that was basically an agricultural nation into a modern economy ("Seize the night").

Deng Ziaopeng

1978 - 1997


-Called on the nation to concentrate on development, and allow some regions to get rich first so they could help others for common prosperity (Deng Xiaopeng), smart man...
-He is completely responsible for China stopping communism in its economic policy and replacing it to a significant with capitalism (Deng Xiaopeng), yay!
-Ziaopeng was seen in the West as a great leader because he moved China away from the "Mao ways" in the past to a more Western and market-orientated economic system (Deng Xiaopeng).

Bibliography

2010

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Deng Xiaopeng. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2010.
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HighBeam research. "Sung Dynasty." Kidipede. DEWAHOST, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.
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History: the first republic. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.
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