Instigated by the British when the heavily taxed the colonies and didn’t allow them to have representation in Parliament. The Declaration of Independence sent the message the the colonies were independent, but winning the war stratified the colonies as a truly independent nation known from then on as the United States of America.
The Third Estate separated themselves from the Estates General to form the National Assembly, calling for social reform. With popular support, they revolted against Louis XVI and ultimately abolished the monarchy via the Convention. The revolution took a turn for the worst during the Reign of Terror, led by Robespiere and the Jacobins, creating the First Republic. After the leaders fell, the conservative Directory took over only to be overcome by Napoleon.
Resulted in the creation of several independent countries, such as Brazil (led by Pedro I), Argentina (Jose de San Martin), Mexico (Miguel Hidalgo), Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, Bolivia (All by Simon Bolivar), and Chile (Bernardo O’HIggins)
nitiated by the US because of British impressment of American sailors. Canada served as one of the fronts of the war and was able to repel many American attacks. This contributed to the patriotism of the Canadian colonies, so much so that Britain feared another revolution. In this way, over an expanse of time, they were granted home rule.
Major players were Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria, and France. Primarily led by Metternich of Austria, agreements were made and actions taken to prevent another Napoleon to conquer all of Europe. The main purpose of the Congress of Vienna was to maintain a balance of power in Europe.
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Native Americans to migrate into a specific territory. The Cherokee specifically were forced out of their land onto these reservations via the Trail of Tears, in which thousands died on the way. Although the Supreme Court ruled against this, Andrew Jackson used his executive powers to force the migration.
Although opium was illegal in China, it was poorly regulated and was consumed by the majority. This led to social travesties, prompting China to ban opium. The British were enraged by this ban and ensued in a war with China. China loses because of Britain’s technological and strategic advantage, and forces China to succumb to their influence through a series of treaties like the Treaty of Nanjing which ceded Hong Kong to the British.
Began after the reign of Sultan Mahmud II, in which his reforms were accelerated. The reformers implemented social reforms, such as a commercial code, a penal code, and a civil code. The reformers was opposed largely by the religious conservatives and the bureaucracy, as well as the Young Ottomans.
Placed New Zealand under the “protection” of Britain. The Treaty was interpreted by the Maori and the British differently, but ultimately allowed for the rule of British officials of Maori lands, which then prompted the long-lasting opposition of the Maori.
US Expansion led to the inquisition of Texas, California, and the New Mexico territory. Texas first declared independence from Mexico and was accepted into the Union. This prompted a war between the US and Mexico, in which the US won and gained the mentioned territories in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
The first women’s rights convention in history, and was attended by not only women’s rights activists but abolitionists as well. The leaders of the convention were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, whom which created a “Declaration of Sentiments,” detailing their complaints against discriminating laws/customs. Laid the foundation for future women’s rights movements.
Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the Manifesto called for the end of private property and the creation of an equal society. It also predicted the struggle between classes in which the working class would revolt and overthrow the capitalists, in turn destroying government. The working class would then have dominion, a “dictatorship of the proletariat”
The rebellion displayed the poverty of the Chinese peasantry as well as their discontent. This is because the population in China increased immensely but there is only so much land that can be used. The rebellion was led by Hong Xiuquan and called for the destruction of the Qing Dynasty. The Taiping wanted to abolish private property (communal wealth), free public education, mass literacy, and prohibition of sexual relations. Eventually quelled by Manchu soldiers with European weapons.
Characterized by liberal reforms designed to modernize Mexico and make it into a nation state. Called for the redistribution of land, separation of church and state, and increased educational opportunities. The liberals leading the reform wanted to limit the privileges of the Catholic Church. The Church fought back to limit the liberal reforms. The reforms altogether was not popular, although it did bring about the enrichment of merchants and the landowning classes.
Instigated by Russian expansion into the Caucasus and take over Ottoman lands Their expansion threatens the balance of power and thus, Britain steps in and defeats them. This demonstrates have vastly superior Western technology and strategy is in comparison to antiquated techniques.
Indian soldiers serving Britain believe that the cartridges that they used contain pork/beef and thus revolt against the British. This initial rebellion escalated into a national anti-British movement. However, the British eventually gained the upperhand and quelled the movement.
Inspired by the Young Italy Movement led by Mazzini. Camillo di Cavour of Sardinia continued the Italian unification by removing the Austrians from Northern Italy. Cavour allied with Guiseppe Garibaldi and his army of Red Shirts, which swept through Sicily and Southern Italy. Italy was thereby unified under King Emmanuell II from Sardinia.
The election of Abraham Lincoln initiated the war. His main purpose was to preserve the Union, but then it became a war to end slavery, as outlined in the Emancipation Proclamation. The Civil War was eventually one by the Union, and resulted in the 13-15th Amendments. However, African Americans had difficulty exercising their new found rights, and the US entered the Reconstruction Era.
The German Confederation was created by the Congress of Vienna, controlled by Austria and Prussia. King Wilhelm I of Prussia appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister, who exercised Realpolitik, using blood and iron to build a strong German state. With a reformed and expanded Prussian army, he provoked wars with Denmark, Austria, and France, uniting German lands to form the Second Reich.
Quebec, Ontario, NOva Scotia, and New Brunswick was joined by the British North America Act of 1867, forming the Dominion of Canada. The rest of the provinces would join later. The Dominion controlled all domestic affairs, and it’s first Prime Minister was John A. Macdonald, who supported purchasing territory and building the trans-Canada railroad.
14 European nations (Great Britain, Germany, France, Belgium, and others) along with the US establish the rules for colonization in Germany. They decided, without the consent of African nations, that Europeans can control unoccupied territories (territories without the presence of another European country) after informing others and defending the holdings.
Inspired by Ram Mohan Roy and other reformers. Mainly pushed for independence from British control, but the adoption of Western practices and the end of Indian traditions (such as sati). The Congress drew largely from Englightenment thought, which was ascertained from European universities. The Congress joined with the All-India Muslim League in 1916.
Japan had great interest in Korea and when anti-foreign rebellion broke out, China tried to reassert authority over Korea. Japan wouldn’t have any of this and defeated Chinese troops and within a few months Japan had taken Korea, along with taiwan and other territories.
The Spanish were treating the Cubans harshly and the Americans intervened. When the USS Maine exploded, the US declared war on Spain. The Americans won within a month, and acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The latter revolted against the US because they believed that they gained their independence after the war. The US eventually took back control.
Supported by Dowager Cixi, the Boxers (Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists) fought to get rid China of foreign devils. They believed that European weapons wouldn’t harm them, so they were easily defeated by the Europeans. After this, China was forced to allow foreign troops to station in China.
This war disputed control over the Liaodong peninsula, Korea, and Manchuria. The Japanese navy easily defeated the Russian fleet. The defeat of Russia signified Japan’s strength as an imperialistic nation as well as exposed Russia’s inferiority.
Panama becomes an independent country with the help of President Theodore Roosevelt. Because of America’s support, they were given the authority to construct the canal, which greatly aided transportation and communication. It also allowed for the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary to be exercised more easily in the Western Hemisphere.
Workers marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg for political concessions, but the government troops open fired, killing 130 workers. This Bloody Sunday Massacre instigated mass peasant uprising as well as prompted urban workers to create soviets that organized strikes and negotiated with employers. The fiasco forced Nicholas to make concessions in the end, creating the Duma, which lacked power. insurrections continued for several years.
Ottoman sultans were just figureheads in this era. This era saw reforms, but the maintenance of Turkish hegemony. The Young Turks sought to make Turkish the official language even though the empire composed of Arabic and Slavic speaking peoples. The reforms of the Young Turks spurred conflicts between the Turkish and the non Turkish members of the Empire. The Ottoman empire continued to decline despite the efforts of the Young Turks.
Middle class Mexicans, peasants, and workers, led by Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Villa, join to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz. The rebels gained large popularity but were not able to successfully take over many cities. The revolution ended with the Mexican Constitution of 1917 which addressed many of the concerns that the rebels had, such as land redistribution.