Global Middle Ages

Main

Britain

Norman Conquest

1066 - 1100

Europe

Official conversion of Armenia to Christianity

301

'Edict of Milan'

313

Declaration of religious toleration in the Roman Empire

Abatement of Justinian plague

800

NLS

First Rus attack on Constantinople

860

The first in a series of plundering expeditions which led to increased contacts between the Rus and Byzantium.

Beginning of Moravian mission of Cyril and Methodius

863

This mission gave the Slavs an alphabet and drew them into pan-European religious and political conflicts.

Official conversion of Rus to Christianity

988

Formation of first northern crusading order

1202

The Order of the Brothers of the Sword and the Teutonic Knights (formed 1230) carried out campaigns of forcible conversion around the eastern Baltic.

Mongol invasion of Rus

1237

Americas

Classic Maya period, with advanced urbanisation, writing etc

250 - 900

Maya decline/collapse

850 - 950

Dates very approximate!

Drought

1020 - 1100

Archaeology suggests drought brings final end to 'high' Maya civilisation

Foundation of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan

1350

CP - date approximate

Foundation of Triple Alliance which sees start of Aztec rise to prominence

1427

This is also the moment at which they 'reinvent' their history

Inca Empire

1438 - 1553

'Discovery' of the Americas

1492

CP

Africa

Asia

Sri Lanka; Arrival of Buddhism

250 BCE

Buddhism traditionally seen as arriving during the reign of Devanampiyatissa in the 3rd C BCE

Unglazed 'Liao' greyware in use in Mongolia/N China

200 - 1300

NLS - dating of the two ends is rather uncertain.

Post-Han dynasties

220 - 581

NLS

Northern Wei dynasty

386 - 535

NLS - this lighter blue is for a selection of 'non-Chinese' dynasties, which variously stand inside or outside the main sequence.

First Turkish empire

552 - 630

NLS

Sui dynasty

581 - 618

NLS - this dark blue is a layer for dynasties, which were contemporary understandings of periodisation.

Tang dynasty

618 - 907

NLS

Battle of Yarmuk

636

The first major defeat of Byzantine forces by the Arabs.

Fall of Sasanian Empire to Arabs

651

Second Turkish empire

683 - 734

NLS

Block printing invented

700

NLS - date obviously imprecise!

Sogdian king abandons Samarqand to Islamic conquest

722

NLS

Battle of Talas (China v Arabs)

751

NLS

Start of An Lushan rebellions

755

NLS - often seen as a turning point.

Beilitung wreck

835

NLS

Start of Huang Chao rebellions

875

NLS - recently suggested as an alternative turning point, at least for dominant aristocracies.

Five Dynasties

907 - 960

NLS

Liao dynasty

907 - 1125

NLS

Luoyang abandoned as a capital city

936

NLS

Site of Beijing becomes a capital city

938

NLS

Intan wreck

940

NLS - average of date range

Cirebon wreck

945

NLS - average of date range

Northern Song dynasty

960 - 1126

NLS

Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura abandoned

993 CE

The invasion of of the Cola king Rajaraja signals the end of the Anuradhapura period and beginning of the Polonnaruwa period

Commercial printing takes off

1000

NLS - approx date

Yellow River floods and changes course repeatedly

1042 - 1128

NLS - dates need checking! I haven't looked them up.

Liao and Heian proposed date for start of Period of Final Dharma

1052

NLS

Jin dynasty

1115 - 1234

NLS

Southern Song dynasty

1127 - 1276

NLS

Mongols in Eastern Eurasia

1206 - 1368

NLS

Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa abandoned

1250

Ming dynasty

1368 - 1644

NLS

Sri Lanka: Arrival of Portuguese

1505

Sri Lanka, Dutch period begins

1658

Australasia

Maoris colonise Aotearoa

1000

NLS - approx date.

Global