AP European History Mid-Term Timeline

Jon Sartirana, Period 1 McAvoy

Main

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The conflict between England and France over English territorial holdings and a claim to the throne. The conflict was in favor of the English with better weapons and a more consolidated military but Joan of Arc helped bring the conflict to an end with France winning a few key victories. Negatively affected the peasantry as the war was funded and the debts paid by the taxation on the peasants.

The Black Death

1347 - 1350

Bubonic plague that spread from Asian trade routes by rats due to fleas carrying the disease. Overpopulation, famine, and poor hygiene contributed to the capacity for devastation of this plague. 1/3 of Europe's population is thought to have died. Many areas not near trade routes were spared, however.

Jacquerie

1358

French revolts in which the peasants rose up against the aristocracy during the Hundred Years War in opposition of ever increasing taxation.

The Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1557

A large movement including economic prosperity and much increase in thought, discovery, and art in Italian port cities or other cities along trade routes.

John Wycliffe and the Lollards

1384

John Wycliffe, and his followers, the Lollards, maintained that personal merit, not rank in office should be the way to determine religious authority. He was accused of herecy.

John Huss and the Hussites

1414

A believer of Wycliffe's beliefs on Catholicism, was called to attend the Council of Constance but was accused of Heresy, imprisoned, and died at the stake.

Northern Renaissance

1468 - 1536

Included the teachings of Erasmus (humanism) and reform in Germany, England, France, and Spain. Also included the printing press.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

The gradual advance in scientific, economic, and agricultural industries throughout Europe.

Henry VIII (Act of Supremacy, English Ref.)

1509 - 1547

In need of a male heir and desperate, Henry passed the Act of Supremacy to allow himself to adopt the new Lutheran religion as the head of the church in England in order to marry and re-marry in order to have a male heir. Many attempts, in 6 marriages, yielded a sickly male heir to rein when he died Edward VI.

The Prince by Machiavelli

1513

The Prince discussed the various techniques of ruling people from an objective perspective. Discussed the most effecting way to rule citizens as a prince.

Reformation

1517 - 1553

Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses and through print culture and word of mouth the idea of "faith alone" and defying the Catholic church spread widely across Europe. The reformation brought about Lutheranism, Calvinism, and the Anabaptists.

Martin Luther, 95 Theses

1517 - 1525

Martin Luther, a leader of a monastery and a believer of religion by "faith alone," witnessed the selling of indulgences by John Tetzel and, enraged, posted his 95 theses for the reformation of the Catholic Church on his local church door for all to see. His ideas soon spread all around Europe, creating many different religions.

Diet of Worms

April 1521 - May 26, 1521

A meeting in the Holy Roman Empire... Martin Luther presented his ideas to the newly elected Charles V. he was ordered to recant but Luther declared that doing so would be acting against scripture, reason, and his conscience. Luther was placed on imperial ban.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants saw Lutheranism as helpful and justification for their release from serfdom. Peasants elicited Luther's support of their "christian," political, and economic rights. Luther condemned them as unchristian and allowed a slaughter by the landlords. 70-100 thousand peasants were killed.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A meeting of the Catholic Church to address the grievances of the protestants, without giving the protestants any recognition. The church discussed repealing the selling of indulgences and squashed the corruption within the clergy to create a more perfect Catholic Church. Won many worshipers back from Lutheranism.

Spanish Armada

1588

The attempt by King Phillip of Spain to invade England by way of the English Channel. The English won a surprising victory, scattering and devastating the Spanish Naval Power and establishing England as a force to be reckoned with on the seas.

Mannerism: (until the Baroque)

1590 - 1610

The artistic movement characterising a "passing of high renaissance painting" around the end of the 1500s and beginning of the 1600s

Cervantes Don Quixote

1605

Criticized the knights of old and the old ways of chivalry and honor. The criticism progressed people forward into a modern age.

Religious Wars

French Religious Wars (Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre)

August 24, 1572

Promoted by Catherine De Medicis in response to a failed assassination of protestant leader Coligny, a slaughter of protestant leaders in France (Huguenots) adding up to about 20,000 protestant deaths.

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Included Holy Roman Empire. Preconditions: Fragmented Nation (almost ungovernable, almost 360 entities), religious division between Catholics and Protestants. 4 periods of war: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, Swedish-French. Turned into a political war for land, ended with the treaty of Westphalia that included religious toleration for Lutheranism and Catholicism ONLY.

English Civil War

Stuarts, Cromwell, and the Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

Oliver Cromwell dominated the puritan republic, after coming into power after Charles I was executed in 1649. Dominated Scotland and Ireland consolidated everything into Great Britain. His protestant army oppressed Irish Catholics. House of Commons wanted to disband his army but he disbanded them, and became Lord Protector.

Restoration and the Glorious Revolution

1660 - 1685

Charles II returned to England after somber puritanism. Had house of lords only when summoned to discuss matters of the state. had sympathies Catholics and advocated toleration. The glorious revolution. It was hoped that James II, a hated ruler, would be succeeded by Mary Queen of Scots, but when his heir was born, parliament allowed for William of Orange to invade and take over.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Restricted power of the monarch, everything went through parliament, and included the toleration act.

Dutch Revolt

Pacification of Ghent

1576

Restricted power of the monarch, everything went through parliament, and included the toleration act.

Union of Utrecht

1581

Netherlands push Spain out by declaring independence from Phillip II and unite under the politique, William of Orange.