European Leaders

Scotland

Kenneth I MacAlpin

841 - February 13, 858

Donald I

February 13, 858 - April 13, 862

Constantine I

April 13, 862 - 877

Aed I

877 - 878

Giric

878 - 889

Donald II the Madman

889 - 900

Constantine II

900 - 943

Malcolm I

943 - 954

Indulf the Aggressor

954 - 962

Dub the Vehement/Black

962 - 967

Colin the White

967 - 971

Kenneth II the Fratricide

971 - 995

Constantine III the Bald

995 - 997

Kenneth III the Chief/Brown

997 - 1005

Malcolm II the Destroyer

1005 - 1034

Duncan I the Diseased

1034 - 1040

Macbeth, the Red King

1040 - 1057

Lulach the Unfortunate/Foolish

August 15, 1057 - March 17, 1058

Malcolm III Big Head/Long-Neck

March 17, 1058 - November 13, 1093

Donald III the Fair/White

November 13, 1093 - June 1094

Duncan II

June 1094 - November 12, 1094

Donald III (again)

November 12, 1094 - 1097

Edgar the Valiant

1097 - January 8, 1107

Alexander I the Fierce

January 8, 1107 - April 23, 1124

David I

May 1124 - May 24, 1153

Malcolm IV the Maiden

May 24, 1153 - December 9, 1165

William I the Lion/Rough

December 9, 1165 - December 4, 1214

Alexander II

December 4, 1214 - July 6, 1249

Alexander III

July 6, 1249 - March 19, 1286

Margaret

November 25, 1286 - September 26, 1290

John Balliol (Empty Suit)

November 17, 1292 - July 10, 1296

Robert I the Bruce

March 25, 1306 - June 7, 1329

David II

June 7, 1329 - February 22, 1371

Robert II

February 22, 1371 - April 19, 1390

Robert III

April 19, 1390 - April 4, 1406

James I

April 4, 1406 - February 21, 1437

James II

February 21, 1437 - August 3, 1460

James III

August 3, 1460 - June 11, 1488

James IV

June 11, 1488 - September 9, 1513

James V

September 9, 1513 - December 14, 1542

Mary I

December 14, 1542 - July 24, 1567

James VI (I of England)

July 24, 1567 - March 27, 1625

Charles I

March 27, 1625 - January 30, 1649

Charles II

January 30, 1649 - September 3, 1651

The Protectorate

1653 - 1660

Successions Unite

May 29, 1660

England

Alfred the Great

871 - 899

Edward the Elder

899 - 924

Athelstan

924 - October 27, 939

Edmund I

October 27, 939 - May 26, 946

Eadred

May 26, 946 - November 23, 955

Eadwig

November 23, 955 - October 1, 959

Edgar I the Peaceable

October 1, 959 - July 8, 975

Edward the Martyr

July 8, 975 - March 18, 978

Aethelred II the Unready

March 18, 978 - 1013

Danes

1013 - February 3, 1014

Aethelred II (again)

February 3, 1014 - April 23, 1016

Edmund II Ironside

April 23, 1016 - October 18, 1016

Cnut the Great (Dane)

October 18, 1016 - November 12, 1035

Harold I Harefoot

November 12, 1035 - March 17, 1040

Harthacnut

March 17, 1040 - June 8, 1042

Edward the Confessor

June 8, 1042 - January 5, 1066

Harold II Godwinson

January 5, 1066 - October 14, 1066

Edgar II Atheling

October 14, 1066 - December 10, 1066

William I the Conqueror

December 25, 1066 - September 9, 1087

William II Rufus

September 9, 1087 - August 2, 1100

Henry I

August 2, 1100 - December 1, 1135

Stephen of Blois

December 22, 1135 - April 7, 1141

Empress Matilda

April 7, 1141 - November 1, 1141

Stephen (again)

November 1, 1141 - October 25, 1154

Henry II

October 25, 1154 - July 6, 1189

Richard I the Lionheart

July 6, 1189 - April 6, 1199

John Lackland

April 6, 1199 - October 19, 1216

Henry III of Winchester

October 19, 1216 - November 16, 1272

Edward I Longshanks

November 16, 1272 - July 7, 1307

Edward II

July 7, 1307 - January 25, 1327

Edward III

February 1,1327 - June 21, 1377

Richard II of Bordeaux

June 21, 1377 - September 30, 1399

Henry IV of Bolingbroke

September 30, 1399 - March 20, 1413

Henry V of Monmouth

March 20, 1413 - August 31, 1422

Henry VI

August 31, 1422 - March 4, 1461

Edward IV

March 4, 1461 - October 3, 1470

Henry VI (again)

October 30, 1470 - April 11, 1471

Edward IV (again)

April 11, 1471 - April 9, 1483

Edward V

April 9, 1483 - June 26, 1483

Richard III

June 26, 1483 - August 22, 1485

Henry VII

August 22, 1485 - April 21, 1509

Henry VIII

April 21, 1509 - January 28, 1547

Edward VI

January 28, 1547 - July 6, 1553

Lady Jane Grey

July 10, 1553 - July 19, 1553

Mary I (Bloody Mary)

July 19, 1553 - November 17, 1558

Elizabeth I

November 17, 1558 - March 24, 1603

James I (VI of Scotland)

March 24, 1603 - March 27, 1625

Charles I

March 27, 1625 - January 30, 1649

The Protectorate

May 19, 1649 - May 29, 1660

Charles II

May 29, 1660 - February 6, 1685

James II (VII of Scotland)

February 6, 1685 - December 11, 1688

William III (II of Scotland)

February 13, 1689 - March 8, 1702

Mary II

February 13, 1689 - December 28, 1694

Anne

March 8, 1702 - May 1, 1707

Great Britain Created

May 1, 1707

Great Britain

Anne

May 1, 1707 - August 1, 1714

George I

August 1, 1714 - June 11, 1727

George II

June 11, 1727 - October 25, 1760

George III

October 25, 1760 - January 29, 1820

George IV

January 29, 1820 - June 26, 1830

William IV

June 26, 1830 - June 20, 1837

Victoria

June 20, 1837 - January 22, 1901

Edward VII

January 22, 1901 - May 6, 1910

George V

May 6, 1910 - January 20, 1936

Edward VIII

January 20, 1936 - December 11, 1936

George VI

December 11, 1936 - February 6, 1952

Elizabeth II

February 6, 1952 - Present

Republic of Ireland

Douglas Hyde

June 25, 1938 - June 24, 1945

Sean T. O'Kelly

June 25, 1945 - June 24, 1959

Eamon de Valera

June 25, 1959 - June 24, 1973

Erskine H. Childers

June 25, 1973 - November 17, 1974

Cearbhall O Dalaigh

December 19, 1974 - October 22, 1976

Patrick Hillery

December 3, 1976 - December 2, 1990

Mary Robinson

December 3, 1990 - September 12, 1997

Mary McAleese

November 11, 1997 - November 10, 2011

Michael D. Higgins

November 11, 2011 - Present

Denmark

Gorm the Old

936 - 956

Harald Bluetooth

958 - 986

Sweyn I Forkbeard

986 - February 3, 1014

Harald II

February 3, 1014 - 1018

Cnut the Great

1018 - November 12, 1035

Harthacnut

November 12, 1035 - June 8, 1042

Magnus I the Good

June 8, 1042 - October 25, 1047

Sweyn II

October 25, 1047 - April 28, 1074

Harald III of Hen

April 28, 1074 - April 17, 1080

Canute IV the Saint

April 17, 1080 - July 10, 1086

Olaf I Hunger

July 10, 1086 - August 18, 1095

Eric I Evergood

August 18, 1095 - July 10, 1103

Niels

1104 - June 25, 1134

Eric II the Memorable

June 25, 1134 - July 18, 1137

Eric III Lamb

July 18, 1137 - 1146

Sweyn III, Canute V, and Valdemar I

1146 - October 23, 1157

Valdemar I the Great

October 23, 1157 - May 12, 1182

Canute VI

May 12, 1182 - November 12, 1202

Valdemar II the Victorious

November 12, 1202 - March 28, 1241

Eric IV Ploughpenny

March 28, 1241 - August 9, 1250

Abel

November 1, 1250 - June 29, 1252

Christopher I

June 29, 1252 - May 29, 1259

Eric V Clipping

May 29, 1259 - November 22, 1286

Eric VI Menved

November 22, 1286 - November 13, 1319

Christopher II

January 1320 - 1326

Valdemar III

1326 - 1329

Christopher II (again)

1329 - August 2, 1332

Valdemar IV

June 21, 1340 - October 24, 1375

Olaf II

May 3, 1376 - August 23, 1387

Margaret I

August 10, 1387 - October 28, 1412

Eric VII

1396 - 1439

Christopher III the Bavarian

April 9, 1440 - January 5, 1448

Christian I

September 1, 1448 - May 21, 1481

John

May 21, 1481 - February 20, 1513

Christian II

July 22, 1513 - January 20, 1523

Frederick I

January 20, 1523 - April 10, 1533

Christian III

1534 - January 1, 1559

Frederick II

January 1, 1559 - April 4, 1588

Christian IV

April 4, 1588 - February 28, 1648

Frederick III

May 1, 1648 - February 9, 1670

Christian V

February 9, 1670 - August 25, 1699

Frederick IV

August 25, 1699 - October 12, 1730

Christian VI

October 12, 1730 - August 6, 1746

Frederick V

August 6, 1746 - January 14, 1766

Christian VII

January 14, 1766 - March 13, 1808

Frederick VI

March 13, 1808 - December 3, 1839

Christian VIII

December 3, 1839 - January 20, 1848

Frederick VII

January 20, 1848 - November 15, 1863

Christian IX

November 15, 1863 - January 29, 1906

Frederick VIII

January 29, 1906 - May 14, 1912

Christian X

May 14, 1912 - April 20, 1947

Frederick IX

April 20, 1947 - January 14, 1972

Margaret II

January 14, 1972 - Present

Norway

Harald I Fairhair

872 - 932

Eric I Bloodaxe

929 - 934

Haakon I the Good

934 - 960

Harald II Greycloak

961 - 970

Harald Bluetooth

970 - 986

Sweyn Forkbeard

986 - 995

Olaf I

995 - 1000

Sweyn Forkbeard (again)

999 - February 3, 1014

Olaf II

1015 - 1028

Cnut the Great

1028 - November 12, 1035

Magnus the Good

November 12, 1035 - October 25, 1047

Harald III the Stern

1046 - September 25, 1066

Magnus II

September 25, 1066 - April 28, 1069

Olaf III

1067 - September 1093

Magnus III Barefoot

September 1093 - August 24, 1103

Eystein I

August 24, 1103 - August 29, 1123

Sigurd I the Crusader

August 24, 1103 - March 26, 1130

Harald IV

March 26, 1130 - December 14, 1136

Magnus IV the Blind

March 26, 1130 - 1135

Inge I the Hunchback

1136 - February 13, 1161

Sigurd II the Mouth

1136 - February 6, 1155

Magnus IV (again)

1137 - November 12, 1139

Eystein II

1142 - 1157

Haakon II the Broadshouldered

1157 - July 7, 1162

Magnus V

1161 - June 15, 1184

Sverre I

June 15, 1184 - March 9, 1202

Haakon III

March 9, 1202 - January 1, 1204

Guttorm I

January 2, 1204 - August 11, 1204

Inge II

August 11, 1204 - April 23, 1217

Haakon IV the Old

June 1217 - December 16, 1263

Magnus VI the Lawmaker

December 16, 1263 - May 9, 1280

Eric II

May 9, 1280 - July 15, 1299

Haakon V

July 15, 1299 - May 8, 1319

Magnus VII

August 1319 - August 15, 1343

Haakon VI

August 15, 1343 - 1380

Olaf IV

July 29, 1380 - August 23, 1387

Margaret

August 3, 1387 - October 28, 1412

Eric III

1389 - 1442

Eric XIII

1396 - 1439

Christopher I

June 1442 - January 5, 1448

Charles I

November 20, 1449 - June 1450

Christian I

May 13, 1450 - May 21, 1481

John

July 20, 1483 - February 20, 1513

Sweden

Erik the Victorious

970 - 995

Olof Skötkonung

995 - 1022

Anund Jakob

1022 - 1050

Emund the Old

1050 - 1060

Stenkil

1060 - 1066

Erik & Erik

1066 - 1067

Halsten Stenkilsson

1067 - 1070

Anund Gårdske

1070 - 1075

Håkan the Red

1075 - 1079

Inge the Elder

1079 - 1084

Blot-Sweyn

1084 - 1087

Inge the Elder (again)

1087 - 1105

Philip Halstensson

1105 - 1118

Inge the Younger

1110 - 1125

Sverker I Clubfoot

1125 - December 25, 1156

Ragnvald Knaphövde

1125 - 1126

Magnus I

1126 - 1130

Erik IX the Saint

December 25, 1156 - May 18, 1160

Magnus II

May 19, 1160 - 1161

Karl I Sverkersson

1161 - April 12, 1167

Knut I Eriksson

April 12, 1167 - 1196

Sverker II

1196 - January 31, 1208

Erik X

January 31, 1208 - April 10, 1216

John I the Child

April 10, 1216 - March 10, 1222

Erik XI the Lisp and Lame

June 1222 - November 29, 1229

Knut II the Tall

November 29, 1229 - 1234

Erik XI (again)

1234 - February 2, 1250

Valdemar

March 1250 - July 22, 1275

Magnus III Barnlock

July 22, 1275 - December 18, 1290

Birger

December 18, 1290 - April 1318

Mats Kettilmundsson (regent)

June 27, 1318 - July 8, 1319

Magnus IV

July 8, 1319 - February 15, 1364

Erik XII

October 17, 1356 - June 20, 1359

Hacon

February 15, 1362 - February 15, 1364

Albert

February 15, 1364 - February 24, 1389

Margaret

February 24, 1389 - October 28, 1412

Erik XIII

July 23, 1396 - September 24, 1439

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (regent)

January 13, 1435 - May 4, 1436

Karl Knutsson Bonde (regent)

October 1438 - October 1440

Christopher I

1441 - January 5, 1448

Bengt & Nils Jönsson (regents)

January 6, 1448 - June 20, 1448

Charles VIII (really II)

June 20, 1448 - February 24, 1457

Jöns Bengtsson & Erik Axelsson (regents)

March 1457 - June 23, 1457

Christian I

June 23, 1457 - June 23, 1464

Charles VIII (again)

August 9, 1464 - January 30, 1465

Kettil Karlsson (regent)

December 26, 1464 - August 11, 1465

Jöns Bengtsson (regent)

August 11, 1465 - October 18, 1466

Erik Axelsson (regent)

October 18, 1466 - November 12, 1467

Charles VIII (again)

November 12, 1467 - May 15, 1470

Sten Sture the Elder (regent)

May 16, 1470 - October 6, 1497

John II

October 6, 1497 - August 1501

Sten Sture (regent again)

November 12, 1501 - December 14, 1503

Svante Nilsson (regent)

January 21, 1504 - January 2, 1512

Finland